Advertisement

Animal Models of Analgesia

  • A. Tjølsen
  • K. Hole
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 130)

Abstract

Measurement of pain and analgesia in animals poses a variety of problems. In addition to the fact that pain itself constitutes a multiplicity of sensory entities, the term pain is poorly defined in relationship to animals and animal behaviour.

Keywords

Neuropathic Pain Sciatic Nerve Dorsal Horn Formalin Test Dorsal Horn Neuron 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aanonsen LM, Wilcox GL (1987) Nociceptive action of excitatory amino acids in the mouse: effects of spinally administered Opioids, phencyclidine and sigma-agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 243:9–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlgren SC, Levine JD (1994) Protein kinase C inhibitors decrease hyperalgesia and C-fiber hyperexcitability in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. J Neurophysiol 72:684–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahlgren SC, Levine JD (1993) Mechanical hyperalgesia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Neuroscience 52:1049–1055PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahlgren SC, White DM, Levine JD (1992) Increased responsiveness of sensory neurons in the saphenous nerve of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. J Neurophysiol 68:20772085Google Scholar
  5. Attal N, Jazat F, Kayser V, Guilbaud G (1990) Further evidence for “pain-related” behaviours in a model of unilateral peripheral mononeuropathy. Pain 41:235–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bennett GJ (1993) An animal model of neuropathic pain: a review. Muscle Nerve 16:1040–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett GJ, Xie YK (1988) A peripheral mononeuropathy in rat that produces disorders of pain sensation like those seen in man. Pain 33:87–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berge OG, Garcia-Cabrera I, Hole K (1988) Response latencies in the tail-flick test depend on tail skin temperature. Neurosci Lett 86:284–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Besse D, Weil-Fugazza J, Lombard MC, Butler SH, Besson JM (1992) Monoarthritis induces complex changes in mu-opioid, delta-opioid and kappa-opioid binding sites in the superficial dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol 223:123–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Besson JM, Guilbaud G (1988) The arthritic rat as a model of clinical pain? Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  11. Blumenkopf B, Lipman JJ (1991) Studies in autotomy: its pathophysiology and usefulness as a model of chronic pain. Pain 45:203–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandt KD, Braunstein EM, Visco DM, O’Connor B, Heck D, Albrecht M (1991) Anterior (cranial) cruciate ligament transection in the dog: a bona fide model of Osteoarthritis, not merely of cartilage injury and repair. J Rheumatol 18:436–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown DM, Hughes BO (1962) Practical aspects of strain variation in relation to pharmacological testing. Pharmacol Pharmacol 14:399–405Google Scholar
  14. Butler SH, Godefroy F, Besson J, Weil-Fugazza J (1992) A limited arthritic model for chronic pain studies in the rat. Pain 48:73–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carlton SM, Lekan HA, Kim SH, Chung JM (1994) Behavioral manifestations of an experimental model for peripheral neuropathy produced by spinal nerve ligation in the primate. Pain 56:155–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr KD, Aleman DO, Holland MJ, Simon EJ (1984) Analgesic effects of ethylketocyclazocine and morphine in rat and toad. Life Sci 35:997–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chapman CR, Casey KL, Dubner R, Foley KM, Gracely, Reading AE (1985) Pain measurement: an overview. Pain 22:1–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chernov HI, Wilson DE, Fowler F, Plummer AJ (1967) Non-specificity of the mouse writhing test. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 167:171–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Coderre TJ, Wall PD (1987) Ankle joint urate arthritis (AJUA) in rats: an alternative model of arthritis to that produced by Freund’s adjuvant. Pain 28:379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coderre TJ, Vaccarino TJ, Melzack R (1990) Central nervous system plasticity in the tonic pain response to subcutaneous formalin injection. Brain Res 535:155–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Costa M, Sutter P, Gybels J, Hees J (1981) Adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats: a possible animal model of chronic pain. Pain 10:173–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Courteix C, Eschalier A, Lavarenne J (1993) Streptozocin-induced diabetic rats: behavioural evidence for a model of chronic pain. Pain 53:81–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Courteix C, Bradin M, Chantelauze C, Lavarenne J, Eschalier A (1994) Study of the sensitivity of the diabetes induced pain model in rats to a range of analgesics. Pain 57:153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. D’Amour FE, Smith DL (1941) A method for determing loss of pain sensation. J Pharmacol 72:74–79Google Scholar
  25. DeLeo JA, Coombs DW (1991) Autotomy and decreased spinal substance P following peripheral cryogenic nerve lesion. Cryobiology 28:460–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. DeLeo JA, Coombs DW, Willenbring S, Colburn RW, Fromm C, Wagner R, Twitchell BB (1994) Characterization of a neuropathic pain model: sciatic cryoneurolysis in the rat. Pain 56:9–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dickenson AH, Sullivan AF (1987) Evidence for a role of the NMDA receptor in the frequency dependent potentiation of deep rat dorsal horn nociceptive neurons following C-fiber stimulation. Neuropharmacology 26:1235–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dickenson AH, Sullivan AF (1990) Differential effects of excitatory amino acid antagonists on dorsal ociceptive neurones in the rat. Brain Res 506:31–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dougherty PM, Garrison CJ, Carlton SM (1992) Differential influence of local anesthetic upon two models of experimentally induced peripheral mononeuropathy in the rat. Brain Res 570:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dubuisson D, Dennis SG (1977) The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain 4:161–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gebhart GF, Ness TJ (1991) Central mechanisms of visceral pain. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 69:627–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Goettl VM, Larson AA (1994) Activity at phencyclidine and mu Opioid sites mediates the hyperalgesic and antinociceptive properties of the N-terminus of substance P in a model of visceral pain. Neuroscience 60:375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Haley JE, Sullivan AF, Dickenson AH (1990) Evidence for spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor involvement in prolonged chemical nociception in the rat. Brain Res 518:218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoheisel U, Mense S, Simons DG, Yu XM (1993) Appearance of new receptive fields in rat dorsal horn neurons following noxious stimulation of skeletal muscle — a model for referral of muscle pain. Neurosci Lett 153:9–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoheisel U, Koch K, Mense S (1994) Functional reorganization in the rat dorsal horn during an experimental myositis. Pain 59:111–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hunskaar S, Berge OG, Hole K (1985) Antinociceptive effets of orphenadrine citrate in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 111:221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hunskaar S, Berge OG, Hole K (1986) A modified hot-plate test sensitive to mild analgesics. Behav Brain Res 21:101–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hunt SP, Pini A, Evan G (1987) Induction of c-fos-like protein in spinal cord neurons following sensory stimulation. Nature 328:632–634PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hylden JLK, Wilcox GL (1983) Pharmacological characterization of substance P-induced nociception in mice: modulation by Opioid and noradrenergic agonists at the spinal level. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 226:398–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Iadorola MJ, Douglass J, Civelli O, Naranjo JR (1988) Differential activation of spinal cord dynorphin and enkephalin neurons during hyperalgesia: evidence using cDNA hybridization. Brain Res 455:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kanui TI, Hole K, Miaron JO (1990) Nociception in crocodiles — capsaicin installation, formalin and hot plate test. Zool Sci 7:537–540Google Scholar
  42. Kayser V, Guilbaud G (1987) Local and remote modifications of nociceptive sensitivity during carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat. Pain 28:99–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kim SH, Chung JM (1992) An experimental model for peripheral neuropathy produced by segmental spinal nerve ligation in the rat. Pain 50:355–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kim SH, Na HS, Sheen K, Chung JM (1993) Effects of sympathectomy on a rat model of peripheral neuropathy. Pain 55:85–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. King AE, Thompson SWN, Urban L, Woolf CJ (1988) An intracellular analysis of amino acid induced excitation of deep dorsal horn neurons in the rat spinal cord slice. Neurosci Lett 89:286–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Koster R, Anderson M, deBeer EJ (1959) Acetic acid for analgesic screening. Fed Proc 18:412Google Scholar
  47. Kress M, Koltzenburg M, Reeh PW, Handwerker HO (1992) Responsiveness and functional attributes of electrically localized terminals of cutaneous C-fibers in vivo and in vitro. J Neurophysiol 68:581–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lascelles BDX, Waterman AE, Cripps PJ, Livingston A, Henderson G (1995) Central sensitization as a result of surgical pain: investigation of the pre-emptive value of pethidine for ovariohysterectomy in the rat. Pain 62:201–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Luukko M, Konttinen Y, Kemppinen P, Pertovaara A (1994) Influence of various experimental parameters on the incidence of thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia induced by a constriction mononeuropathy of the sciatic nerve in lightly anesthetized rats. Exp Neurol 128:143–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malcangio M, Malmberg-Aiello P, Giotti A, Ghelardini C, Bartolini A (1992) Desensitization of GABA-B receptors and antagonism by CGP 35348, prevent bicuculline- and picrotoxin-induced antinociception. Neuropharmacology 31:783–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merskey M (1984) Pain terms: a list with definitions and notes on usage. Recommended by the International Association for the Study of Pain Subcommittee on Taxomony. Pain 18:287–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Minor BG, Archer T, Post C, Jonsson G, Mohammed AK (1986) 5-HT agonist induced analgesia modulated by central but not peripheral noradrenaline depletion in rats. J Neural Transm 66:243–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mjellem-Joly N, Lund A, Berge OG, Hole K (1991) Potentiation of a behavioural response in mice by spinal coadministration of substance P and excitatory amino acid agonists. Neurosci Lett 133:121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Okuda K, Nakahama H, Miyakawa H, Shima K (1984) Arthritis induced in cat by sodium urate; a possible animal model for tonic pain. Pain 18:287–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Perkins MN, Campbell E, Dray A (1993) Antinociceptive activity of the bradykinin Bl and B2 receptor antagonists, des-Arg9, (Leu8)-BK and HOE 140, in two models of persistent hyperalgesia in the rat. Pain 53:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pircio A, Fedele C, Bierwagen M (1975) A new method for the evaluation of analgesic activity using adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 31:207–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Presley RW, Menétrey D, Levine JD, Basbaum AI (1990) Systemic morphine suppresses noxious stimulus evoked Fos protein-like immunoreactivity in the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci 10:323–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Randall LO, Selitto JJ (1957) A method for measurement of analgesic activity on inflamed tissue. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 111:409–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ren K, Hylden JL, Williams GM, Ruda MA, Dubner R (1992) The effects of a non-competitive NMD A receptor antagonist, MK-801, on behavioural hyperalgesia and dorsal horn neuronal activity in rats with unilateral inflammation. Pain 50:331–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roberts VJ (1989) Ethical issues in the use of animals for pain research. In: Chapman CR, Loeser JD (eds) Advances in pain research and therapy, vol 12. Raven, New York, pp 169–174Google Scholar
  61. Rosland JH (1991) The formalin test in mice: the influence of ambient temperature. Pain 45:211–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rosland JH, Tjølsen A, Mæhle B, Hole K (1990) The formalin test in mice: effect of formalin concentration. Pain 42:235–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Seltzer Z, Dubner R, Shir Y (1990) A novel behavioral model of neuropathic pain disorders produced in rats by partial sciatic nerve injury. Pain 43:205–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sheen K, Chung JM (1993) Signs of neuropathic pain depend on signals from injured nerve fibers in a rat model. Brain Res 610:62–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Sherrington C (1947) The integrative action of the nervous system, 2nd edn. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  66. Shir Y, Seltzer Z (1990) A-fibers mediate mechanical hyperesthesia and allodynia and C-fibers mediate thermal hyperalgesia in a new model of causalgiform pain disorders in rats. Neurosci Lett 115:62–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Shir Y, Seltzer Z (1991) Effects of sympathectomy in a model of causalgiform pain produced by partial sciatic nerve injury in rats. Pain 45:309–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Siegmund E, Cadmus R, Lu G (1957) A method for evaluating both non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 95:729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Skilling SR, Smullin DH, Beitz AJ, Larson AA (1988) Extracellular amino acid concentrations in the dorsal spinal cord of freely moving rats following veratridine and nociceptive stimulation. J Neurochem 51:127–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stanfa LC, Sullivan AF, Dickenson AH (1992) Alterations in neuronal excitability and the potency of spinal mu, delta and kappa Opioids after carrageenan-induced inflammation. Pain 50:345–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stevens CW (1992) Alternatives to the use of mammals for pain research. Life Sci 50:901–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Størkson R, Kjørsvik A, Tjølsen A, Hole K (1996) Lumbar catheterization of the spinal subarachnoid space in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 65:167–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Taber RI (1974) Predictive value of analgesic assays in mice and rats. In: Braude MC, Harris LS, May EL, Smith JP, Villarreal JE (eds) Narcotic antagonists. Raven, New York, pp 191–211 (Advances in biochemical psychopharmacology, vol 8)Google Scholar
  74. Tanck EN, Kroin JS, McCarthy RJ, Penn RD, Ivankovich AD (1992) Effects of age and size on developement of allodynia in a chronic pain model produced by a sciatic nerve ligation in rats. Pain 51:313–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Tjølsen A, Lund A, Berge OG, Hole K (1989) An improved method for tail flick testing with adjustment for tail skin temperature. J Neurosci Methods 33:259–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tjølsen A, Berge OG, Hole K (1991a) Lesion of bulbo-spinal serotonergic or noradrenergic pathways reduce nociception as measured by the formalin test. Acta Physiol Scand 142:229–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tjølsen A, Rosland JH, Berge OG, Hole K (1991b) The increasing temperature hot plate test: an improved test of nociception in mice and rats. J Pharmacol Methods 25:241–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tjølsen A, Berge OG, Hunskaar S, Rosland JH, Hole K (1992) The formalin test: an evaluation of the method. Pain 51:5–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tonussi CR, Ferreira SH (1992) Rat knee-joint carrageenin incapacitation test: an objective screen for central and peripheral analgesics. Pain 48:421–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Vinegar R, Truax JF, Selph JL (1976) Quantitative comparison of the analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of aspirin, phenacetin and acetaminophen in rodents. Eur J Pharmacol 37:23–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wall PD, Devor M, Inbal R, Scadding JW, Schonfeld D, Seltzer Z, Tomkiewicz MM (1979) Autotomy following peripheral nerve lesions: experimental anesthesia dolorosa. Pain 7:103–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wiesenfeld Z, Lindblom U (1980) Behavioural and electrophysiological effects of various types of peripheral nerve lesions in the rat: a comparison of possible models of chronic pain. Pain 8:285–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wilcox GL (1988) Pharmacological studies of grooming and scratching behaviour elicted by spinal substance P and excitatory amino acids. Ann NY Acad Sci 525:228–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Willenbring S, Deleo JA, Coombs DW (1994) Differential behavioral outcomes in the sciatic cryoneurolysis model of neuropathic pain in rats. Pain 58:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Woolf CJ, King AE (1990) Dynamic alterations in the cutaneous mechanore-ceptive fields of dorsal horn neurons in the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci 10(8):2717–2726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Woolf CJ, Thompson SWN (1991) The induction and maintenance of central sensitization is dependent on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor activation; implications for the treatment of post-injury pain hypersensitivity states. Pain 44:293–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Woolfe G, MacDonald AD (1944) The evaluation of the analgesic action of pethidine hydrocholoride (demerol). J Pharmacol Exp Ther 80:300307Google Scholar
  88. Xu XJ, Hao JX, Aldskogius H, Seiger Å, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z (1992) Chronic pain related syndrome in rats after ischemic spinal cord lesion: a possible animal model for pain in patients with spinal cord injury. Pain 48:279–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zimmermann M (1983) Ethical guidlines for investigations of experimental pain in conscious animals. Pain 16:109–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Tjølsen
  • K. Hole

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations