Cosmetics pp 226-240 | Cite as

Fragrances Between Allergic, Hypoallergic,and Irritant: In Vitro Studies

  • S. Sieben
  • B. Blömeke
  • H. F. Merk


Fragrances are ubiquitously used to refine cosmetic, hygiene and household products such as soaps, shampoos, lotions, facial and toilet tissues, household cleansers and detergents but also medicaments, food, plastics, paper, or paints (Tables 1 and 2) [25,27, 34, 37, 49, 53, 74, 83]. Until the last century, natural extracts from plants and animal secretions have been the only source of raw materials for fragrances. Today, approximately 3000 synthetic and 300-400 natural fragrances are used in fragrance industry [6]. Natural fragrances are commonly extracted from essential plant oils and animal secretions (isolates), tree bark (balsams), or are obtained by solvent extraction from plant materials (concretes, absolutes [33]). Well known examples of isolates are eugenol from cloverleaf, citral from lemmon grass and menthol from peppermint oil [65]. In general, many fragrances are viscous, oily substances. However, they are very heterogeneous regarding their chemical structures. Fragrances can be classified for example as terpenes, aromatics, aliphatics, as well as alicyclics and heterocyclics [38,65].


Contact Dermatitis Allergic Contact Dermatitis Lymphocyte Transformation Test Linalyl Acetate Pool Human Serum 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Sieben
  • B. Blömeke
  • H. F. Merk

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