Studies of Non-A, Non-B Hepatitis and Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus in Chimpanzees

  • D. W. Bradley
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 242)


This year marks the end of the second decade of research on post-transfusion non- A, non-B hepatitis (or PT-NANBH), now primarily known to be caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV; CHOO et al. 1989). Approximately 10 years ago, the successful molecular cloning of HCV was publicly announced and ushered in a new era of epidemiological, medical, and laboratory research virtually unparalleled by any other area in virology. During the last 10 years, according to a January 1998 search of the NLM-Medline-PubMed database, more than 14,000 publications listing hepatitis C have been cited. This astounding growth was a result of the diligent and persistent efforts of at least two major laboratories and the accumulated knowledge generated by many other scientists in other laboratories who struggled to isolate, characterize, and clone the major agent (virus) responsible for PT-NANBH. One Australian scientist who previously worked in the field of PT-NANBH remarked (in 1990) that “over 80 laboratories at one time or another worked on non-A, non-B hepatitis...and that by the end of 1987 virtually only three or four laboratories were seriously pursuing research in this area.” This perspective highlights the extremely frustrating nature of earlier research in the field of PT-NANBH and reveals the trend of a rapidly diminishing number of active laboratories over time during the mid-1980s.


Ultrastructural Alteration Electron Microscopic Evidence Viral Interference Hepatocyte Cytoplasm Maize Rough Dwarf Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Aach RD, Lander JJ, Miller WV, Kahn RA, Gitnick GL, Hollinger FB, Werch J, Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Kellner AK, Weiner JM, Mosley JW (1978) Transfusion-transmitted viruses: interim analysis of hepatitis among transfused and non-transfused patients. In: Vyas GN, Cohen SH (eds) Viral hepatitis, a contemporary assessment of etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and prevention. Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, pp 383–396Google Scholar
  2. Alter HJ, Bradley DW (1995) Non-A, non-B hepatitis unrelated to the hepatitis C virus (Non-ABC). Semin Liver Dis 15:110–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alter HJ, Holland PV, Morrow AG, Purcell RH, Feinstone SM, Moritsugu Y (1975) Clinical and serological analysis of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis. Lancet 2:838–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Holland PV, Popper H (1978) Transmissible agent in non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet 1:459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alter HJ, Purcell RH, Feinstone SM, Tegtmeier GE (1982) Non-A, non-B hepatitis: its relationship to cytomegalovirus, to chronic hepatitis, and to direct and indirect test methods. In: Szmuness W, Alter HJ, Maynard JE (eds) Viral hepatitis 1981 international symposium. Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia, pp 279–294Google Scholar
  6. Alter HJ, Dienstag JL (1984) The evolving spectrum of non-A, non-B hepatitis. In: Chisari FV (ed) Advances in hepatitis research. Masson, New York, pp 281–292Google Scholar
  7. Berman M, Alter HJ, Ishak KG, Purcell RH, Jones EA (1979) The chronic sequelae of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Ann Intern Med 91:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bianchi L, Gudat FG (1983) Histo- and immunopathology of viral hepatitis. In: Deinhardt F, Deinhardt J (eds) Viral hepatitis: laboratory and clinical science. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 335–382Google Scholar
  9. Bradley DW, Cook EH, Maynard JE, McCaustland KA, Ebert JW, Dolana GH, Petzel RA, Kantor RJ, Heilbrunn A, Fields HA, Murphy BL (1979) Experimental infection of chimpanzees with antihemophilic (Factor VIII) materials: recovery of virus-like particles associated with non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Med Virol 3:253–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bradley DW, Mayanard JE, Cook EH, Ebert JW, Gravelle CR, Tsiquaye KN, Kessler H, Zuckerman AJ, Miller MF, Ling C-M, Overby LR (1980) Non-A/non-B hepatitis in experimentally infected chimpanzees: cross-challenge and electron microscopic studies. J Med Virol 6:185–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bradley DW, Maynard JE, Popper H, Ebert JW, Cook EH, Fields HA, Kemler BJ (1981) Persistent non-A, non-B hepatitis in experimentally infected chimpanzees. J Infect Dis 143:210–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bradley DW, Maynard JE, Krawczynski KZ, Popper H, Cook EH, Gravelle CR, Ebert JW (1982) Non- A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees infected with a Factor Vili agent: evidence of persistent hepatic disease. In: Szmuness W, Alter HJ, Maynard JE (eds) Viral hepatitis 1981 international symposium. Franklin Institute Press, New York, pp 319–329Google Scholar
  13. Bradley DW, Krawczynski KZ, Cook EH, Gravelle CR, Ebert JW, Maynard JE (1982) Recrudescence of non-A, non-B hepatitis in persistently infected chimpanzees. In: Hopkins R, Fileds S (eds) Viral hepatitis, 2nd international workshop. Nuclear Enterprises, Edinburgh, pp 43–48Google Scholar
  14. Bradley DW, Maynard JE (1983) Non-A, non-B hepatitis: research progress and current perspectives. Dev Biol Stand 54:463–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley DW, Maynard JE, Popper H, Cook, EH, Ebert JW, McCaustland KA, Schable CA, Fields HA (1983) Post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis: physicochemical properties of two distinct agents. J Infect Dis 148:254–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley DW, Maynard JE, McCaustland KA, Murphy BL, Cook EH, Ebert JW (1983) Non-A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees: interference with acute hepatitis A virus and chronic hepatitis B virus infections. J Med Virol 11:207–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bradley DW, Schable CA, McCaustland KA, Cook EH, Murphy BL, Fields HA, Ebert JW, Wheeler CM, Maynard JE (1984) Hepatitis A virus: growth characteristics of in vivo and in vitro propagated wild and attenuated virus strains. J Med Virol 14:373–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bradley DW (1984) Transmission, etiology, and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis non-A, non-B in non- human primates. In: Chisari FV (ed) Advances in hepatitis research, chap 31. Masson, New York, pp 268–280Google Scholar
  19. Bradley DW, McCaustland KA, Cook EH, Ebert JW, Maynard JE (1984) Non-A, non-B hepatitis is chimpanzees: effects of immunosuppression on course of disease and recovery of tubule-forming agent from infected liver. Viral hepatitis and liver disease, chap 39. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 451–458Google Scholar
  20. Bradley DW, McCaustland KA, Cook EH, Schable CA, Ebert JW, Maynard JE (1985a) Post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees: physicochemical evidence that the tubule forming agent is a small, enveloped virus. Gastroenterology 88:773–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bradley DW, Cook EH, Miller MF, Schaff Z, Gravelle CR, McCaustland KA, Maynard JE (1985b) Non-A, non-B hepatitis in experimentally infected chimpanzees: comparative morphology of virus- induced ultrastructural changes. In: Nishioka K, Blumber B, Ishida N, Koike K (eds) Hepatitis viruses and hepatocellular carcinoma: approaches through molecular biology and ecology. Academic, Tokyo, pp 225–250Google Scholar
  22. Bradley DW, Andjaparidze A, Cook EH, McCaustland KA, Balayan M, Stetler H, Velazquez O, Robertson B, Humphrey C, Kane M, Weisfuse I (1988) Etiologic agent of enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Gen Virol 69:731–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradley DW (1990) Hepatitis non-A, non-B viruses become identified as hepatitis C and E viruses. Prog Med Virol 37:101–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bradley DW, McCaustland KA, Krawczynski K, Spelbring J, Humphrey C, Cook EH (1991) Hepatitis C virus: buoyant density of the Factor VHI-derived isolate in sucrose. J Med Virol 34:206–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Brotman B, Prince AM, Huima T, Richardson L, von den Ende MC, Pfeifer U (1983) Interference between non-A, non-B and hepatitis B virus infections in chimpanzees. J Med Virol 11:191–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brotman B, Prince AM, Huima T (1985) Non-A, non-B hepatitis: is there more than one single blood-borne strain? J Infect Dis 151:618–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brown P, Rohwer RG, Green EM, Gajdusek DC (1982) Effect of chemicals, heat, and histopathologic processing on high-infectivity hamster-adapted scrapie virus. J Infect Dis 145:683–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Burk KH, Dreesman GR, Cabrai GA, Peters RL (1984) Long-term sequelae of non-A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees. Hepatology 4:808–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Canese MG, Rizzetto M, Novara R, London WT, Purcell RH (1984) Experimental infection of chimpanzees with the HBsAg associated delta virus: an ultrastructural study. J Med Virol 13:63–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Choo Q-L, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M (1989) Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A, non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science 244:359–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Compans RW, Chopin PW (1973) Orthomyxoviruses and paramyxoviruses. In: Dalton AJ (ed) Ultra-structure of animal viruses and bacteriophages: an atlas. Academic, New York, pp 213–237Google Scholar
  32. Craske J, Dilling N, Stern D (1975) An outbreak of hepatitis associated with intravenous injection of factor VIII concentrate. Lancet 2:221–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Craske J, Spooner R (1978) Evidence for existence of two types of factor Vlll-associated non-B transfusion hepatitis. Lancet 2:1051–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dales S, Eggers HJ, Tamm I, Palade GE (1965) Electron microscopic study of the formation of polio-virus. Virology 26:379–389PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dales S (1973) The structure and replication of reoviruses. In: Dalton AJ (ed) Ultrastructure of animal viruses and bacteriophages: an atlas. Academic, New York, pp 155–171Google Scholar
  36. David-Ferreira JR, Manaker RA (1965) An electron microscopic study of the development of a mouse hepatitis in tissue culture cells. J Cell Biol 24:57–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Davis CL, Hoofnagle JE, Waggoner JB (1984) Acute type A hepatitis during chronic hepatitis B virus infection: association of depressed hepatitis B virus replication with appearance of endogenous alpha interferon. J Med Virol 14:141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dermott E (1985) Non-A, non-B hepatitis virus Lancet 1:170Google Scholar
  39. Dienes H, Popper H, Arnold W, Lobeck H (1982) Histologic observations in human hepatitis non-A, non-B. Hepatology 2:562–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dienstag JL (1983) Non-A, non-B hepatitis II: experimental transmission, putative virus agents and markers, and prevention. Gastroenterology 85:743–768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Drucker J, Tabor E, Gerety RJ, Jackson D, Barker LF (1979) Simultaneous acute infection with hepatitis A and hepatitis B viruses in a chimpanzee. J Infect Dis 139:338–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fagan EA, Williams R (1984) Non-A, non-B hepatitis. Semin Liver Dis 4:314–335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Feinstone SM, Alter HJ, Dienes HP, Shimizu Y, Popper H, Blackmore D, Sly D, London WT, Purcell RH (1981) Non-A, non-B hepatitis in chimpanzees and marmosets. J Infect Dis 144:588–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Feinstone SM, Michalik KS, Kamimura T, Alter HJ, London WT, Purcell RH (1983) Inactivation of hepatitis B virus and non-A, non-B hepatitis by chloroform. Infect Immun 41:816–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Galbraith RM, Dienstag JL, Purcell RH, Gower PH, Zuckerman AJ, Williams R (1979) Non-A, non-B hepatitis associated with chronic liver disease in a haemodialysis unit. Lancet 1(8123):951–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guyer B, Bradley DW, Bryan JA, Maynard JE (1979) Non-A, non-B hepatitis among participants in a plasmapheresis stimulation program. J Infect Dis 139:634–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hampton RO, Phillips S, Knesek JE, Mink GI (1973) Ultrastructural cytology of pea leaves and roots infected by pea seedborne mosaic virus. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch 42:242–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harrison AK, Murphy FA, Gardner JJ (1982) Visceral target organs in systemic St. Louis encephalitis virus infections in hamsters. Exp Mol Pathol 37:292–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haugen RK (1979) Hepatitis after the transfusion of frozen red cells. N Engl J Med 301:393–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. He L-F, Alling D, Popkin T, Shapiro M, Alter HJ, Purcell RH (1987) Determining the size of non-A, non-B hepatitis virus by filtration. J Infect Dis 156:636–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hellings JA, Van Der Veen-Du Prie J, Snelting-Van Densen R, Stute R (1985) Preliminary results of transmission experiments of non-A, non-B hepatitis by mononuclear leucocytes from a chronic patient. J Virol Methods 10:321–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hindman SH, Maynard JE, Bradley DW, Denes AE, Berquist KR (1977) Simultaneous infections with type A and B hepatitis viruses. Am J Epidemiol 105:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hollinger FB, Gitnick GL, Aach RD, Szmuness W, Mosley JW, Stevens CE, Peters RL, Weiner JM, Werch JB, Lander JJ (1978) Non-A, non-B hepatitis transmission in chimpanzees: a project of the transfusion transmitted viruses study group. Intervirology 10:60–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hollinger FB, Mosley JW, Szmuness W, Aach RD, Peters RL, Stevens C (1980) Transfusion-transmitted viruses study: experimental evidence for two non-A, non-B hepatitis agents. J Infect Dis 142:400–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hollinger FB, Dolana G, Thomas W, Gyorkey F (1984) Reduction in risk of hepatitis transmission by heat-treatment of a human factor VIII concentrate. J Infect Dis 150:250–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hoofnagle JH, Alter HJ (1984) Chronic viral hepatitis. In: Vyas GN, Dienstag JL, Hoofnagle JH (eds) Viral hepatitis and liver disease. Grune and Stratton, New York, pp 97–113Google Scholar
  57. Hooks JJ, Gibbs CJ (1975) The foamy viruses. Bacteriol Rev 39:169–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hruby MA, Schauf V (1978) Transfusion-related short-incubation hepatitis in hemophilic patients. JAMA 240:1355–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Iwarson S, Schaff Z, Mitchell F, Gerety RJ (1985) Non-A, non-B hepatitis virus. Lancet 1:171Google Scholar
  60. Koretz RL, Suffin SC, Gitnick GL (1976) Post-transfusion chronic liver disease. Gastroenterology 71:797–803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liaw Y-F, Chu C-M, Chang-Chien C-S, Wu C-S (1982) Simultaneous acute infections with hepatitis non- A, non-B viruses. Dig Dis Sci 27:762–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Linnen J, Wages J, Zhang_Keck Z-Y, Fry K, Krawczynski K, Alter H, Koonin E, Gallagher M, Alter M, Hadziyannis K, Karayiannis P, Fung K, Nakatsuji Y, Shih W-K, Young L, Piatak M, Hoover C, Fernandez J, Chen S, Zou J-C, Morris T, Hyams K, Ismay S, Lifson J, Hess G, Foung S, Thomas H, Bradley D, Margolis H, Kim J (1996) Molecular cloning and disease association of hepatitis G virus: a transfusion-transmissible agent. Science 271:505–508. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Merz PA, Somerville RA, Wisniewski HM, Manuelidis L, Manuelidis EE (1983) Scrapie associated fibrils in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Nature 306:474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miyamoto H, Okamoto H, Sato K, Tanaka T, Mishiro S (1992) Extraordinarily low density hepatitis C virus estimated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation and the polymerase chain reaction. J Gen Virol 73:715–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Monath TP, Cropp CB, Harrison AK (1983) Mode of entry of a neurotropic arbovirus into the central nervous system: reinvestigation of an old controversy. Lab Invest 48:399–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mosley JW, Redeker AG, Feinstone SM, Purcell RH (1977) Multiple hepatitis viruses in multiple attacks of acute viral hepatitis. N Engl J Med 296:75–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Norkrans G, Frosner G, Hermodsson S, Iwarson S (1980) Multiple hepatitis attacks in drug addicts. JAMA 243:1056–1058PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pfeifer U, Thomssen R, Legier K, Böttcher Y, Gerlick W, Weinmann E, Klinge O (1980) Experimental non-A, non-B hepatitis: four types of cytoplasmic alteration in hepatocytes of infected chimpanzees. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol 33:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Prince AM, Brotman B, Grady GF, Kuhns WJ, Hazzi C, Levine RW, Millian SJ (1974) Long-incubation post-transfusion hepatitis without serological evidence of exposure to hepatitis-B virus. Lancet 2:241–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Prince AM, Huima T, Williams BA, Bardina L, Brotman B (1984) Isolation of a virus from chimpanzee liver cell cultures inoculated with sera containing the agent of non-A, non-B hepatitis. Lancet 2:1071–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Prince AM, Stephan W, Dichtelmuller H et al. (1985) Inactivation of the Hutchinson strain of non-A, non-B hepatitis virus by combined use of beta-propiolactone and ultraviolet irradiation. J Med Virol 16:119–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prusiner SB (1982) Novel proteinaceous infectious particles cause scrapie. Science 216:136–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prusiner SB, Groth DF, Bolton DC, Kent SB, Hood LE (1984) Purification and structural studies of a major scrapie prion protein. Cell 38:127–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rakela JH, Redker AG (1979) Chronic liver disease after acute non-A, non-B viral hepatitis. Gastroenterology 77:1200–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Reyes GR, Purdy MA, Kim JP, Luk K-C, Young LM, Fry KE, Bradley DW (1990) Isolation of a cDNA from the virus responsible for enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis. Science 247:1335–1339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Roberts IM, Harrison BD (1970) Inclusion bodies and tubular structures in Chenopodium amar anticolor plants infected with strawberry latent ringspot virus. J Gen Virol 7:47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seto B, Iwarson S, Coleman WG, Gerety RJ (1984) Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in association with the non-A, non-B hepatitis agent(s). Lancet 2:941–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shamoto M, Murakami S, Zenke T (1981) Adult T-cell leukemia in Japan: an ultrastructural study. Cancer 47:1804–1811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shimizu YK, Feinstone SM, Purcell RH, Alter HJ, London WT (1979) Non-A, non-B hepatitis: ultra- structural evidence for two agents in experimentally infected chimpanzees. Science 205:197–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sidhu GS, Stahl RE, El-Sadr W, Zolla-Payner S (1983) Ultrastructural markers of AIDS. Lancet 1:990–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Simons JN, Leary TP, Dawson GJ, Pilot-Matias TJ, Merhoff AS, Schlauder G, Desai SM, Mushawar IK (1995) Isolation of novel virus-like sequences associated with human hepatitis. Nat Med 1:564–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tabor E, Gerety RJ, Drucker JA, Seeff LB, Hoofnagle JH, Jackson DR, April M, Barker LF, Pineda- Tamondong G (1978) Transmission of non-A, non-B hepatitis from man to chimpanzee. Lancet 1:463–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tabor E, Seeff LB, Gerety RJ (1980) Chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis carrier state. N Engl J Med 303:139–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tabor E, Gerety RJ (1980) Inactivation of an agent of human non-A, non-B hepatitis by formalin. J Infect Dis 142:767–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tateda A, Kikuchi K, Numazaki Y, Shirachi R, Ishida N (1979) Non-A, non-B hepatitis in Japanese recipients of blood transfusions: clinical and serologic studies after the introduction of laboratory screening of donor blood to hepatitis B surface antigen. J Infect Dis 139:511–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tsiquaye KN, Zuckerman AJ (1979) New human hepatitis virus. Lancet 1:1135–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tsiquaye KN, Byrd RG, Tovey G, Wyke RJ, Williams R, Zuckerman A J (1980) Further evidence of cellular changes associated with non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Med Virol 5:63–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tsiquaye KN, Portmann B, Tovey G, Kessler H, Shanlian H, Xiao-zhen L, Zuckerman AJ, Craske J, Williams R (1983) Non-A, non-B hepatitis in persistent carriers of hepatitis B virus. J Med Virol 11:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Vidano C (1970) Phases of maize rough dwarf virus multiplication in the vector Laodelphax striatellus. Virology 41:218–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wyke RJ, Tsiquaye KN, Thornton A, White Y, Portmann B, Das PK, Zuckerman A J, Williams R (1979) Transmission of non-A, non-B hepatitis to chimpanzees by factor IX concentrates after fatal complications in patients with chronic liver disease. Lancet 1:520–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yoshizawa H, Akahane Y Itoh Y, Iwakiri S, Kitajima K, Morita M, Tanaka A, Nojiri T, Shimizu M, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M (1980) Virus-like particles in a plasma fraction (fibrinogen) and in the circulation of apparently healthy blood donors capable of inducing non-A, non-B hepatitis in humans and chimpanzees. Gastroenterology 79:512–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Yoshizawa H, Itoh Y, Iwakiri S, Kitajima K, Tanaka A, Nojiri T, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M (1981) Demonstration of two different types of non-A, non-B hepatitis by reinjection and cross-challenge studies in chimpanzees. Gastroenterology 81:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Yoshizawa H, Itoh Y, Iwakiri S, Kitajima K, Tanaka A, Tachibana T, Nakamura T, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M (1982) Non-A, non-B (type 1) hepatitis agent capable of inducing tubular ultrastructures in the hepatocyte cytoplasm of chimpanzees: inactivation by formalin and heat. Gastroenterology 82:502–506PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Bradley
    • 1
  1. 1.LawrencevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations