Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses pp 139-152

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 267) | Cite as

Control of Japanese Encephalitis in Japan: Immunization of Humans and Animals, and Vector Control

  • A. Igarashi


Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious acute viral encephalitis with high case fatality; approximately half of the survivors suffer from grave sequelae accompanied by neuropsychiatric disorders. Its causative agent, JE virus, is a member of the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, and is a typical mosquito-borne arbovirus according to its mode of transmission. Its principal vector is Culex tritaeniorhynchus and related species, and its major amplifier is swine. Humans are relatively insensitive to JE virus and are considered as dead-end hosts in the transmission cycle. Based on the mode of transmission, three strategies have been considered for the control of human JE: (1) vector control, (2) swine immunization, and (3) human immunization. All of them have been carried out in the epidemiological settings of Japan, and the findings are described briefly below.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Igarashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical MedicineNagasaki UniversityJapan
  2. 2.School of Social Welfare Planning, Department of Social WelfareKyushu University of Health and Welfare, Takahashi Educational InstitutionsNobeoka City, MiyazakiJapan

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