The Role of Birds in the Ecology of West Nile Virus in Europe and Africa

  • M. Malkinson
  • C. Banet
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 267)


The aim of this chapter is twofold; firstly, to review the literature published since the comprehensive review of Hayes in 1989, and second, to summarize some of the data accumulated during the recent West Nile (WN) virus epizootic in Israel during 1997–2001 including an evaluation of bird migration in the region.


West Nile Virus Wild Bird Rift Valley Nile Delta House Sparrow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Malkinson
    • 1
  • C. Banet
    • 1
  1. 1.Kimron Veterinary InstituteBeit DaganIsrael

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