Japanese Encephalitis and West Nile Viruses pp 309-322

Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 267)

The Role of Birds in the Ecology of West Nile Virus in Europe and Africa

  • M. Malkinson
  • C. Banet

Abstract

The aim of this chapter is twofold; firstly, to review the literature published since the comprehensive review of Hayes in 1989, and second, to summarize some of the data accumulated during the recent West Nile (WN) virus epizootic in Israel during 1997–2001 including an evaluation of bird migration in the region.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Malkinson
    • 1
  • C. Banet
    • 1
  1. 1.Kimron Veterinary InstituteBeit DaganIsrael

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