Immune Responses to Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

  • K. A. Schat
  • C. J. Markowski-Grimsrud
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 255)

Abstract

Marek’s disease (MD), a herpesvirus-induced lymphomatous disease in chickens, has attracted the interest of immunologists since MD virus (MDV) was isolated in 1968 and vaccines became available shortly afterwards (Witter 1985,Witter 2000). The pathogenesis of MD has been reviewed extensively (Calnek 1986,Calnek 1998,Calnek 2000; Schat 1987b). Infection of chickens with MDV is characterized by several distinct phases in which innate and acquired immune responses play important roles. The first phase is characterized by the replication of MDV in lymphoid cells, which are mostly B lymphocytes. The consequence of the lytic infection is that T lymphocytes become activated. Only activated, but not resting, T cells can be infected with MDV. Schat and Xing (2000) hypothesized recently that a viral homologue of interleukin (IL)-8 (vIL-8) (LIu et al. 1999) may be involved in attracting the activated T cells to the infected B cells (see Sects. 2.1, 6.2) to facilitate the transfer of virus. Intimate contact between B and T cells is important for the transfer of infectious virus from cell to cell (Kaleta 1977), because MDV is highly cell-associated (Schat 1984). Temporal immunosuppression of the humoral immune responses is often one of the consequences of the lytic infection in B lymphocytes. During the second phase, a latent infection is normally established in these activated T cells, although some activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may undergo a lytic infection (Baigent et al. 1998). The actual process of establishment and maintenance of latency has not been elucidated, but it is likely that a complex set of interactions, including immune responses and specific cellular and viral genes, is responsible.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abplanalp H, Schat KA, Calnek BW (1985) Genetic resistance to Marek’s disease in congenic strains of chickens. In: Calnek BW, Spencer JL (eds) Proc Intl Symp on Marek’s disease, pp 347–358. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett SquareGoogle Scholar
  2. Adair BM (1996) Virus induced immunosuppression. In: Davison F, Payne LN, Morris TR (eds) Poultry Immunology, pp 301–315. Carfax, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson AS, Parcells MS, Morgan RW (1998) The glycoprotein D (US6) homolog is not essential for oncogenicity or horizontal transmission of Marek’s disease virus. J Virol 72:2548–2553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacon LD (2001) Genetic resistance to Marek’s disease. In: Hirai K (ed) Marek’s disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 255:121–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baigent SJ, Ross LJN, Davison TF (1998) Differential susceptibility to Marek’s disease is associated with differences in number, but not in phenotype or location, of pp38 + lymphocytes. J Gen Virol 79:2795–2802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bingisser RM, Tilbrook PA, Holt PG, Kees UR (1998) Macrophage-derived nitric oxide regulates T cell activation via reversible disruption of the Jak3/Stat5 signaling pathway. J Immunol 160:5729–5734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Biron C (1997) Activation and function of natural killer cell responses during viral infections. Curr Opin Immunol 9:24–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Briles WE, Briles RW, Taffs RE, Stone HA (1983) Resistance to malignant lymphoma in chickens is mapped to subregion of major histocompatibility (B) complex. Science 219:977–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brunovskis P, Chen X, Velicer LF (1992) Analysis of Marek’s disease virus glycoproteins D, I, and E. ProcXIX World’s Poultry Congress, Vol. 1, pp 118–121. Ponsen & Looijen, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  10. Bülow von V (1977) Cross-protection between JMV Marek’s disease derived tumour transplant, Marek’s disease and turkey herpesvirus. Avian Pathol 6:353–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bülow von V, Klasen A (1983a) Growth inhibition of Marek’s disease T-lymphoblastoid cell lines by chicken bone-marrow-derived macrophages activated in vitro. Avian Pathol 12:161–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bülow von V, Klasen A (1983b) Effects of avian viruses on cultured chicken bone-marrow-derived macrophages. Avian Pathol 12:179–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bülow von V, Schat KA (1999) Chicken infectious anemia. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM (eds) Diseases of Poultry, 10th ed, pp 739–756. Iowa State Univ Press, Ames, IAGoogle Scholar
  14. Bumstead N (1998) Genomic mapping of resistance to Marek’s disease. Avian Pathol 27:S78–S81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bumstead JM, Payne LN (1987) Production of an immune suppressor factor by Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 16:47–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burgess SC, Kaiser P, Davison TF (1996) A novel lymphoblastoid surface antigen and its role in Marek’s disease. In: Silva RF, Cheng HH, Coussens PM, Lee LF, Velicer LF (eds) Current research on Marek’s disease. Proc 5th Int Symp Marek’s Disease, pp 29–39. American Association Avian Pathologists, Kennett SquareGoogle Scholar
  17. Burgoyne GH, Witter RL (1973) Effect of passively transferred immunoglobulins on Marek’s disease. Avian Dis 17:824–837PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Buscaglia C, Calnek BW (1988) Maintenance of Marek’s disease herpesvirus latency in vitro by a factor found in conditioned medium. J Gen Virol 69:2809–2818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buscaglia C, Calnek BW, Schat KA (1988a) Effect of immunocompetence on the establishment and maintenance of latency with Marek’s disease herpesvirus. J Gen Virol 69:1067–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buscaglia C, Calnek BW, Schat KA (1988b) Effect of reticuloendotheliosis virus and infectious bursal disease virus on Marek’s disease herpesvirus latency. Avian Pathol 18:265–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calnek BW (1986) Marek’s disease - a model for herpesvirus oncology. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 12:293–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calnek BW (1998) Lymphomagenesis in Marek’s disease. Avian Pathol 27:S54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calnek BW (2001) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease virus infection. In: Hirai K (ed) Marek’s disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 255:25–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Calnek BW, Smith MW (1972) Vaccination against Marek’s disease with cell-free turkey herpesvirus:interference by maternal antibody. Avian Dis 16:954–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calnek BW, Carlisle JC, Fabricant J, Murthy KK, Schat KA (1979) Comparative pathogenesis studies with oncogenic and non-oncogenic Marek’s disease viruses and turkey herpesvirus. Am J Vet Res 40:541–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Calnek BW, Schat KA, Fabricant J (1980) Influence of vaccinations, in ovo infection, and embryonal bursectomy on Marek’s disease pathogenesis. In: Essex M, Todaro G, zur Hausen H (eds) Viruses in naturally occurring cancer, Vol 7, pp 185–197. Cold Spring Harbor, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Calnek BW, Shek WR, Schat KA (1981) Latent infections with Marek’s disease virus and turkey herpesvirus. J Natl Cancer Inst 66:585–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Calnek BW, Shek WR, Schat KA, Fabricant J (1982) Dose-dependent inhibition of virus rescue from lymphocytes latently infected with turkey herpesvirus or Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 26:321–331PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Calnek BW, Harris RW, Buscaglia C, Schat KA, Lucio B (1998) Relationship between the immunosuppressive potential and the pathotype of Marek’s disease virus isolates. Avian Dis 42:124–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chausse AM, Bernardet N, Musset E, Thoraval P, Vaino O, Dambrine G, Coudert F (1995) Expression of MHC class I antigens following Marek’s disease infection. In: Davison TF, Bumstead N, Kaiser P (eds) Adv Avian Immunol Res, pp 135–140. Carfax, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  31. Chen X-B, Velicer LF (1992) Expression of the Marek’s disease virus homolog of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein B in Escherichia coli and its identification as B antigen. J Virol 66:4390–4398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chubb RC, Churchill AE (1969) Effect of maternal antibody on Marek’s disease. Vet Rec 85:303–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Churchill AE, Biggs PM (1997) Agent of Marek’s disease in tissue culture. Nature 215:528–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Churchill AE, Chubb RC, Baxendale W (1969) The attenuation, with loss of oncogenicity, of the herpes-type virus of Marek’s disease (strain HPRS-16) on passage in cell culture. J Gen Virol 4:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dandapat S, Pradhan HK, Mohanty GC (1994) Anti-idiotype antibodies to Marek’s disease-associated tumour surface antigen in protection against Marek’s disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 40:353–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Davidson I, Becker Y, Malkinson M (1991) Monospecific antibodies to Marek’s disease virus antigen B dimer (200kDa) and monomer (130 and 60kDa) glycoproteins neutralize virus infectivity and detect the antigen B proteins in infected cell membranes. Arch Virol 121:25–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Difronzo NL, Schierman LW (1989) Transplantable Marek’s disease lymphomas. III. Induction of MHC-restricted tumor immunity by lymphoblastoid cells in Fi hosts. Int J Cancer 44:474–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Digby MR, Lowenthal JW (1995) Cloning and expression of the chicken interferon-gamma gene. J Interferon Cytokine Res 15:939–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ding AHJ, Lam KM (1986) Enhancement by interferon of chicken splenocyte natural killer cell activity against Marek’s disease. Vet Immunol Immunopath 11:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dunon D, Salomonsen J, Skjodt K, Kaufman J, Imhof BA (1990) Ontogenic appearance of MHC class I (B-F) antigens during chicken embryogenesis. Developm Immunol 1:127–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Eidson CS, Kleven SH, Anderson DP (1973) Efficacy of cell-free and cell-associated herpesvirus of turkeys vaccines in progeny from vaccinated parental flocks. Am J Vet Res 34:869–872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Friedman A, Shalem-Meilin E, Heller ED (1992) Marek’s disease vaccines cause temporary B-lymphocyte dysfunction and reduced resistance to infection in chicks. Avian Pathol 21:621–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gesser B, Lund M, Lohse N, Vestergaad C, Matsushima K, Sindet-Pedersen S, Jensen SL, Thestrup-Pedersen K, Larsen CG (1996) IL-8 induces T cell chemotaxis, suppresses IL-4, and upregulates IL-8 production by CD4+ T cells. J Leukoc Biol 59:407–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ghiasi H, Kaiwar R, Nesburn B, Slanina S, Wechsler SL (1992a) Baculovirus-expressed glycoprotein E (gE) of herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) protects mice against lethal intraperitoneal and lethal ocular HSV-1 challenge. Virology 188:469–476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ghiasi H, Kaiwar R, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL (1992b) Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein I in baculovirus: preliminary biochemical characterization and protection studies. J Virol 66:2505–2509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Giambrone JJ, Eidson CS, Page RK, Fletcher OJ, Barger BO, Kleven SH (1976) Effect of infectious bursal agent on the response of chickens to Newcastle disease and Marek’s disease vaccination. Avian Dis 20:53^544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Göbel TWF, Chen C-LH, Shrimpf J, Grossi CE, Bernot A, Bucy RP, AufTray C, Cooper MD (1994) Characterization of avian natural killer cells and their intracellular CD3 protein complex. Eur J Immunol 24:1685–1691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Göbel TWF, Chen C-LH, Cooper MD (1996) Avian natural killer cells. In: Vainio O, Imhof BA (eds) Immunology and developmental biology of the chicken. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 212:107–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gooding LR (1992) Virus proteins that counteract host immune defenses. Cell 71:5–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Grose C (1990) Glycoproteins encoded by varicella-zoster virus: biosynthesis, phosphorylation, and intracellular trafficking. Annu Rev Microbiol 44:59–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gunn MD, Ngo VN, Ansel KM, Ekland EH, Cyster JG, Williams LT (1998) A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles activates Burkitt’s lymphoma receptor-1. Nature 391:799–803PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gupta MK, Chauhan HVS, Jha GJ, Singh KK (1989) The role of the reticuloendothelial system in the immunopathology of Marek’s disease. Vet Microbiol 20:223–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hadden JW (1988) Recent advances in the preclinical and clinical immunopharmacology of intereleukin-2: emphasis on 11-2 as an immunorestorative agent. Cancer Detect Prev 12:537–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Haffer K, Sevoian M (1979) In vitro studies on the role of the macrophages of resistant and susceptible chickens with Marek’s disease. Poultry Sci 58:295–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Haffer K, Sevoian M, Wilder M (1979) The role of the macrophage in Marek’s disease: In vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Cancer 23:648–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanke T, Graham FL, Rosenthal KL, Johnson DC (1991) Identification of an immunodominant cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition site in glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus by using recombinant adenovirus vectors and synthetic peptides. J Virol 65:1177–1186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heller ED, Schat KA (1985) Inhibition of natural killer activity in chickens by Marek’s disease virus-transformed cell lines. In: Calnek BW, Spencer LJ (eds) Proc Int Symp Marek’s disease, pp 286–294. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett SquareGoogle Scholar
  58. Heller ED, Schat KA (1987) Enhancement of natural killer cell activity by Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Pathol 16:51–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Higgins DA, Calnek BW (1976) Some effects of silica treatment on Marek’s disease. Infect Immun 13:1054–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ikuta K, Ueda S, Kato S, Hirai K (1984) Identification with monoclonal antibodies of Marek’s disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys related to virus neutralization. J Virol 49:1014–1017PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ikuta K, Ueda S, Kato S, Hirai K (1985) Identification of Marek’s disease virus-specific antigens in Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines using monoclonal antibody against virus-specific phosphorylated polypeptides. Int J Cancer 35:257–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jang H-K, Kitazawa T, Ono M, Kawaguchi Y, Maeda N, Yokoyama Y, Tohya Y, Niikura M, Mikami T (1996) Protection studies against Marek’s disease using baculovirus-expressed glycoproteins B and C of Marek’s disease virus type 1. Avian Path 25:5–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Johnson DC, Hill AB (1998) Herpesvirus evasion of the immune system. In: Whitton JL (ed) Antigen presentation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 232:149–177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Jones D, Lee L, Liu J-L, Kung H-J, Tillotson JK (1992) Marek’s disease virus encodes a basic-leucine zipper gene resembling the fos/jun oncogenes that is highly expressed in lymphoblastoid tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:4042–4046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kaleta EF (1977) Vermehrung, Interferenz und Interferoninduktion aviären herpesvirusarten: Beitrag zur Schutzimpfung gegen die Mareksche Krankheit. 2. Mitteilung: Material und Methoden, Ergebnisse, Diskussion und Zusamenfassung. Zbl Vet Med B 24:429–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaleta EF, Bankowski RA (1972) Production of circulating and cell-bound interferon in chickens by type 1 and type 2 plaque-producing agents of the Cal-1 strain of Marek’s disease virus and herpesvirus of turkeys. Am J Vet Res 33:573–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kärre K (1995) Express yourself or die: peptides, MHC molecules, and NK cells. Science 267:987–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaufman J, Salomonsen J (1997) The minimal essential MHC revisited: both peptide-binding and cell surface expression level of MHC molecules are polymorphisms selected by pathogens in chickens. Hereditas 127:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keller LH (1992) Protection against reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T tumours is associated with JMV-1 culture supernatant-enhanced natural killer cell activity. Avian Pathol 21:389–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kim IJ, Karaca K, Pertile TL, Erickson SA, Sharma JM (1998) Enhanced expression of cytokine genes in spleen macrophages during acute infection with infectious bursal disease virus in chickens. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 61:331–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kimman TG, de Wind N, Oei-Lie N, Pol JMA, Berns AJM, Gielkens ALJ (1992) Contribution of single genes within the unique short region of Aujeszky’s disease virus (suid herpesvirus type 1) to virulence, pathogenesis and immunogenicity. J Gen Virol 73:243–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. King D, Page D, Schat KA, Calnek BW (1981) Difference between influences of homologous and heterologous maternal antibodies on response to serotype-2 and serotype-3 Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Dis 25:74–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kodama H, Sugimoto C, Image F, Mikami T (1979a) Anti-viral immunity against Marek’s disease virus infected chicken kidney cells. Avian Pathol 9:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kodama H, Mikami T, Inoue M, Izawa H (1979b) Inhibitory effects of macrophages against Marek’s disease virus plaque formation in chicken kidney cell cultures. J Natl Cancer Inst 63:1267–1271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kodama H, Mikami T, Izawa H (1980) Effects of levamisole on pathogenesis of Marek’s disease. JNCI 65:155–159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Konagaya K, Oki Y (1987) Suppression of IgM production and its mechanism in chicks transplanted with Marek’s disease lymphoma cell lines. Jpn J Vet Sci 49:191–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Koopman J-O, Hämmerling GJ, Momburg F (1997) Generation, intracellular transport and loading of peptides associated with MHC class I molecules. Curr Opin Immunol 9:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Koptidesova D, Kopacek J, Zelnik V, Ross NJL, Pastorekova S, Pastorek JU (1995) Identification and characterisation of a cDNA clone derived from the Marek’s disease tumour cell line RPL-1 encoding a homologue of α-transinducing factor (VP-16) of HSV-1. Arch Virol 140:355–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lam KM, Linna TJ (1979) Transfer of natural resistance to Marek’s disease (JMV) with non-immune spleen cells. I. Studies of cell populations transferring resistance. Int J Cancer 24:662–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lee LF (1979) Macrophage restriction of Marek’s disease virus replication and lymphoma cell proliferation. J Immunol 123:1088–1091PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lee LF, Witter RL (1991) Humoral immune responses to inactivated oil-emulsified Marek’s disease vaccine. Avian Dis 35:452–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lee LF, Sharma JM, Nazerian K, Witter RL (1978a) Suppression and enhancement of mitogen response in chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus and the herpesvirus of turkeys. Infect Immun 21:474–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee LF, Sharma JM, Nazerian K, Witter RL (1978b) Suppression of mitogen-induced proliferation of normal spleen cells by macrophages from chickens inoculated with Marek’s disease virus. J Immunol 120:1554–1559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Lessard M, Hutchings DL, Spencer JL, Lillehoj HS, Gavora JS (1996) Influence of Marek’s disease virus strain AC-1 on cellular immunity in birds carrying endogenous viral genes. Avian Dis 40:645–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Ligas MW, Johnson DC (1988) A herpes simplex virus mutant in which glycoprotein D sequences are replaced by β-galactosidase sequences binds to but is unable to penetrate cells. J Virol 62:1486–1494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Lillehoj HS, Lillehoj EP, Weinstock D, Schat KA (1988) Functional and biochemical characterization of avian T lymphocyte antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies. Eur J Immunol 18:2059–2065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liu J-L, Ye Y, Lee LF, Kung HJ (1998) Transforming potential of the herpesvirus oncoprotein MEQ:morphological transformation, serum-independent growth, and inhibition of apoptosis. J Virol 72:388–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Liu J-L, Lin S-F, Xia L, Brunovskis P, Li D, Davidson I, Lee LF, Kung H-J (1999) MEQ and v-IL8:cellular genes in disguise? Acta Virol 43:94–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lu YS, Kermani-Arab V, Moll T (1976) Cyclophosphamide-induced amelioration of Marek’s disease in Marek’s disease-susceptible chickens. Am J Vet Res 37:687–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lukert PD, Saif YM (1997) Infectious Bursal Disease. In: Calnek BW, Barnes HJ, Beard CW, McDougald LR, Saif YM (eds) Diseases of Poultry, 10th ed. pp 721–738. Iowa State Univ Press, AmesGoogle Scholar
  91. Maccubbin DL, Schierman L (1986) MHC restricted cytotoxic response of chicken T cells: expression, augmentation and clonal expansion. J Immunol 136:12–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Mándi Y, Seprényi G, Pusztai R, Béládi I (1985) Are granulocytes the main effector cells of natural cytotoxicity in chickens? Immunobiol 170:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mándi Y, Veromaa T, Baranji K, Miczák A, Béládi I, Toivanen P (1987) Granulocyte-specific monoclonal antibody inhibiting cytotoxicity reactions in the chicken. Immunobiol 174:292–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Marcus PI, van der Heide L, Sekellick MJ (1999) Interferon action on avian viruses. I. Oral administration of chicken interferon-α ameliorates Newcastle disease. J Interferon Cytokine Res 19:881–885PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. McColl K, Calnek BW, Harris WV, Schat KA, Lee LF (1987) Expression of a putative tumor-associated antigen on normal versus Marek’s disease virus-transformed lymphocytes. J Natl Cancer Inst 79:991–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. McConnell CDG, Adair BM, McNulty MS (1993a) Effects of chicken anemia virus on cell-mediated immune function in chickens exposed to the virus by a natural route. Avian Dis 37:366–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McConnell CDG, Adair BM, McNulty MS (1993b) Effects of chicken anemia virus on macrophage function in chickens. Avian Dis 37:358–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mester JC, Rouse BT (1991) The mouse model and understanding immunity to herpes simplex virus. Rev InfDis 13:S935–S945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morimura T, Hattori M, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M (1995) Immunomodulation of peripheral T cells in chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus: involvement in immunosuppression. J Gen Virol 76:2979–2985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morimura T, Ohashi K, Kon Y, Hattori M, Sugimoto C, Onuma M (1996) Apoptosis and CD8-down-regulation in the thymus of chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus. Arch Virol 141:2243–2249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Morimura T, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C, Onuma M (1998) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease (MD) and possible mechanisms of immunity induced by MD vaccine. J Vet Med Sci 60:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Morimura T, Cho K-O, Kudo Y, Hiramoto Y, Ohashi K, Hattori M, Sugimoto C, Onuma M (1999) Anti-viral and antitumor effects induced by an attenuated Marek’s disease virus in CD4- or CD8-deficient chickens. Arch Virol 144:1809–1818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Murthy KK, Calnek BW (1979) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease: effect of immunization with inactivated viral and tumor-associated antigens. Infect Immun 26:547–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Murthy KK, Dietert RR, Calnek BW (1979) Demonstration of chicken fetal antigen (CFA) on normal splenic lymphocytes, Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines and other neoplasms. Int J Cancer 24:349–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Muscarella DE, Bloom SE (1997) Involvement of gene-specific DNA damage and apoptosis in the differential toxicity of mitomycin C analogs towards B-lineage versus T-lineage lymphoma cells. Biochem Pharm 53:811–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Nazerian K, Lee LF, Yanagida N, Ogawa R (1992) Protection against Marek’s disease by a fowlpox virus recombinant expressing the glycoprotein B of Marek’s disease virus. J Virol 66:1409–1413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Neipel F, Albrecht J-C, Fleckenstein B (1997) Cell-homologous genes in the Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated rhadinovirus human herpesvirus 8: determinants of its pathogenicity? J Virol 71:4187^4192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Niikura M, Matsuura Y, Endoh D, Onuma M, Mikami T (1992) Expression of the Marek’s disease virus (MDV) homolog of glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus by a recombinant baculovirus and its identification as the B antigen (gplOO, gp6O, gp49) of MDV. J Virol 66:2631–2638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. O’Brien V (1998) Viruses and apoptosis. J Gen Virol 79:1833–1845Google Scholar
  110. Ohashi K, Mikami T, Kodama H, Izawa H (1987) Suppression of NK activity of spleen cells by chicken fetal antigen present on Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines cells. Int J Cancer 40:378–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Omar AR, Schat KA (1996) Syngeneic Marek’s disease virus (MDV)-specific cell mediated immune responses against immediate early, late, and unique MDV proteins. Virology 222:87–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Omar AR, Schat KA (1997) Characterization of Marek’s disease herpesvirus (MDV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in chickens inoculated with a nononcogenic vaccine strain of MDV. Immunology 90:579–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Omar AR, Schat KA, Lee LF, Hunt HD (1998) Cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in chickens immunized with a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing Marek’s disease herpesvirus glycoprotein B. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 62:73–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Onuma M, Mikami T, Hayashi TTA, Okada K, Fujimoto Y (1975) Studies of Marek’s disease herpes-virus and turkey herpesvirus specific common antigen which stimulates the production of neutralizing antibodies. Arch Virol 48:85–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Otaki Y, Nunoya T, Tajma M, Kato A, Nomura Y (1988a) Depression of vaccinal immunity to Marek’s disease by infection with the chicken anemia agent. Avian Pathol 17:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Otaki Y, Tajima M, Saito K, Nomura Y (1988b) Immune response of chicks inoculated with chicken anemia agent alone or in combination with Marek’s disease virus or turkey herpesvirus. Jpn J Vet Sci 50:1040–1047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Payne LN, Rennie M (1973) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease in chicks with and without maternal antibody. J Natl Cancer Inst 51:1559–1573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Payne LN, Frazier JA, Powell PC (1976) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease. Int Rev Expt Pathol 16:59–154Google Scholar
  119. Pereira L (1994) Function of glycoprotein B homologues of the family Herpesviridae. Infectious Agents and Dis 3:9–28Google Scholar
  120. Ploegh HL (1998) Viral strategies of immune evasion. Science 280:248–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Powell PC (1975) Immunity to Marek’s disease induced by glutaraldehyde-treated cells of Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines. Nature 257:684–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Powell PC (1978) Protection against the JMV Marek’s disease transplantable tumour by Marek’s disease virus-specific antigens. Avian Pathol 7:305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Powell PC, Rowell JG (1977) Dissociation of anti-viral and anti-tumor immunity in resistance to Marek’s disease virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 59:919–924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Powell PC, Hartley KJ, Mustill BM, Rennie M (1983a) Studies on the role of macrophages in Marek’s disease of the chicken. J Ret Soc 34:289–297Google Scholar
  125. Powell PC, Mustill BM, Rennie M (1983b) The role of histocompatibility antigens in cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Marek’s disease tumour-derived lymphoblast cell lines. Avian Pathol 12:461–468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Pratt WD, Morgan RW, Schat KA (1992a) Cell-mediated cytolysis of lymphoblastoid cells expressing Marek’s disease virus-specific phosphorylated polypeptides. Vet Microbiol 33:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pratt WD, Morgan RW, Schat KA (1992b) Characterization of reticuloendotheliosis virus-transformed avian T-lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with Marek’s disease virus. J Virol 66:7239–7244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Quere P (1992) Suppression mediated in vitro by Marek’s disease virus-transformed T-lymphoblastoid cell lines: effect on lymphoproliferation. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 32:149–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Quere P, Dambrine G (1988) Development of anti-tumoral cell-mediated cytotoxicity during the course of Marek’s disease in chickens. Ann Rech Vét 19:193–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Qureshi MA, Miller L (1991) Signal requirements for the acquisition of tumoricidal competence by chicken peritoneal macrophages. Poultry Sci 70:530–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Qureshi MA, Heggen CL, Hussain I (2000) Avian macrophage: effector functions in health and disease. Develop Comp Immunol 24:103–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Raugh I, Mettenleiter TC (1991) Pseudorabies virus glycoproteins gll and gp5O are essential for virus penetration. J Virol 65:5348–5356Google Scholar
  133. Reyburn HT, Mandelboim O, Vales-Gomez M, Davis DM, Pazmany L, Strominger JL (1997) The class I MHC homologue of human cytomegalovirus inhibits attack by natural killer cells. Nature 386:514–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rinaldo CR Jr (1994) Modulation of major histocompatibility complex antigen expression by viral infection. Am J Path 144:637–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Rivas AL, Fabricant J (1988) Indications of immunodepression in chickens infected with various strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Dis 32:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rodenberg J, Sharma JM, Belzer SW, Nordgren RM, Naqi S (1994) Flow cytometric analysis of B cell and T cell subpopulations in specific-pathogen-free chickens infected with infectious bursal disease virus. Avian Dis 38:16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Ross LJN (1977) Antiviral T cell-mediated immunity in Marek’s disease. Nature 268:644–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Ross LJN (1999) T-cell transformation by Marek’s disease virus. Trends Microbiol 7:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ross LJN (1980) Mechanism of protection conferred by HVT. In: Biggs PM (ed) Resistance and immunity to Marek’s disease, pp 289–300. EEC publications, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  140. Ross LJN, Binns MM, Tyers P, Pastorek J, Zelnik V, Scott S (1993) Construction and properties of a turkey herpesvirus recombinant expressing the Marek’s disease virus homologue of glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus. J Gen Virol 74:371–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ross LJN, Sanderson M, Scott SD, Binns MM, Doel T, Milne B (1989) Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the Marek’s disease virus homologue of glycoprotein B of herpes simplex virus. J Gen Virol 70:1789–1804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Ross N, O’Sullivan G, Rothwell C, Smith G, Burgess SC, Rennie M, Lee LF, Davison TF (1997) Marek’s disease virus EcoR\-Q gene (meq) and a small RNA antisense to ICP4 are abundantly expressed in CD4 + cells carrying a novel lymphoid marker, AV37, in Marek’s disease lymphomas. J Gen Virol 78:2191–2198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Schat KA (1984) Characteristics of the virus. In: Payne LN (ed) Marek’s disease. Scientific basis and methods of control, pp 77–112. Martinus NijhofT, Boston/The HagueGoogle Scholar
  144. Schat KA (1987a) Immunity in Marek’s disease and other tumors. In: Toivanen A, Toivanen P (eds) Avian Immunology: Basis and Practice, Vol 2, pp 101–128. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  145. Schat KA (1987b) Marek’s disease - A model for protection against herpesvirus-induced tumors. Cancer Surveys 6:1–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Schat KA (1991) Importance of cell-mediated immunity in Marek’s disease and other viral tumor diseases. Poultry Sci 70:1165–1175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Schat KA (1996) Immunity to Marek’s disease, lymphoid leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis. In: Davison F, Payne LN, Morris TR (eds) Poultry Immunology, pp 209–234. Carfax, AbingdonGoogle Scholar
  148. Schat KA, Calnek BW (1978a) In vitro inactivation of cell-free Marek’s disease herpesvirus by immune peripheral blood lymphocytes. Avian Dis 22:693–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schat KA, Calnek BW (1978b) Protection against Marek’s disease-derived tumor transplants by the nononcogenic SB-1 strain of Marek’s disease virus. Infect Immun 22:225–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schat KA, Davies C (2000) Resistance to Viral Diseases. In: Axford RFE, Bishop SC, Nicholas F, Owen JB (eds) Breeding for disease resistance in farm animals, 2nd ed, pp 271–300. CAB, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  151. Schat KA, Heller ED (1985) A chromium-release assay for the study of cell-mediated immune responses to Marek’s disease antigens. In: Calnek BW, Spencer LJ (eds) Proc Int Symp Marek’s disease, pp 306–316. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Kennett SquareGoogle Scholar
  152. Schat KA, Kaiser P (1997) Avian cytokines. In: Schijns V, Horzinek MC (eds) Cytokines in Veterinary Medicine, pp 289–300. CAB, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  153. Schat KA, Murthy KK (1980) In vitro cytotoxicity against Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid cell lines after enzymatic removal of Marek’s disease tumor-associated surface antigen. J Virol 34:130–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Schat KA, Xing Z (2000) Specific and nonspecific immune responses to Marek’s disease virus. Develop Comp Immunol 24:201–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Schat KA, Schultz RD, Calnek BW (1978) Marek’s disease: Effect of virus pathogenicity and genetic susceptibility on response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to concanavalin-A. In: Bentvelzen P, Hilgers J, Yohn DS (eds) Adv Comp Leukosis Res, pp 183–185. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  156. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Fabricant J (1981) Influence of the bursa of Fabricius on the pathogenesis of Marek’s disease. Infect Immun 31:199–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Schat KA, Shek WR, Calnek BW, Abplanalp H (1982a) Syngeneic and allogeneic cell-mediated cytotoxicity against Marek’s disease lymphoblastoid tumor cell lines. Int J Cancer 35:187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Fabricant J (1982b) Characterization of two highly oncogenic strains of Marek’s disease virus. Avian Pathol 11:593–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Weinstock D (1986) Cultivation and characterization of avian lymphocytes with natural killer cell activity. Avian Pathol 15:539–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Schat KA, Calnek BW, Weinstock D (1987) Cultured avian lymphocytes with natural killer cell activity. In: Weber WT, Ewert DL (eds) Avian Immunology, pp 157–169. Alan R. Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  161. Schat KA, Pratt WD, Morgan RW, Weinstock D, Calnek BW (1992) Stable transfection of reticuloendotheliosis virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. Avian Dis 36:432^439PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Schierman LW (1984) Transplantable Marek’s disease lymphomas. II. Variable tumor immunity induced by different lymphoblastoid cells. JNCI 73:423–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sekellick MJ, Ferrandino AF, Hopkins DA, Marcus PI (1994) Chicken interferon gene: cloning, expression, and analysis. J Interferon Res 14:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Sekellick MJ, Lowenthal JW, O’Neill TE, Marcus PI (1998) Chicken interferon type I and II enhance synergistically the antiviral state and nitric oxide secretion. J Interferon Cytokine Res 18:407–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Sharma JM (1981) Natural killer cell activity in chickens exposed to Marek’s disease virus: inhibition of activity in susceptible chickens and enhancement of activity in resistant and vaccinated chickens. Avian Dis 25:882–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sharma JM (1983/1984) Presence of adherent cytotoxic cells and non-adherent natural killer cells in progressive and regressive Marek’s disease tumors. Vet Immunol Immunopath 5:125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sharma JM (1989) In situ production of interferon in tissues of chickens exposed as embryos to turkey herpesvirus and Marek’s disease virus. Am J Vet Res 50:882–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Sharma JM, Coulson BD (1977) Cell-mediated cytotoxic response to cells bearing Marek’s disease tumor-associated surface antigen in chickens infected with Marek’s disease virus. J Natl Cancer Inst 58: 1647–1651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Sharma JM, Coulson BD (1979) Presence of natural killer cells in specific-pathogen-free chickens. JNCI 63:527–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Sharma JM, Graham CK (1982) Influence of maternal antibody on efficacy of embryo vaccination with cell-associated and cell-free Marek’s disease vaccine. Avian Dis 26:860–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sharma JM, Okazaki W (1981) Natural killer cell activity in chickens: target cell analysis and effect of antithymocyte serum on effector cells. Infect Immun 31:1078–1085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Sharma JM, Witter RL, Burmester BR (1973) Pathogenesis of Marek’s disease in old chickens: lesion regression as the basis for age-related resistance. Infect Immun 8:715–724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Sieminski-Brodzina LM, Mashaly MM (1991) Characterization by scanning and transmission electron microscopy of avian peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting natural killer-like (NK) activity. Develop Comp Immunol 15:181–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Tani K, Su SB, Utsunomiya I, Oppenheim JJ, Wang JM (1998) Interferon-gamma maintains the binding and functional capacity of receptors for IL-8 on cultured human T cells. Eur J Immunol 28:502–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Tay CH, Szomolanyi-Tsuda E, Welsh RM (1998) Control of infections by NK cells. In: Kärre K, Colonna M (eds) Specificity, function, and development of NK cells. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 230:193–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Theis GA (1977) Effects of lymphocytes from Marek’s disease-infected chickens on mitogen responses of syngeneic normal chicken spleen cells. J Immunol 118:887–894PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Theis GA (1981) Subpopulations of suppressor cells in chickens infected with cells of a transplantable lymphoblastic leukemia. Infect Immun 34:526–534PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Tsjeng CK, Fletcher OJ, Schierman LW (1986) Preferential protection against Marek’s disease pathogenesis by immunisation with syngeneic virus-nonproducer lymphoblastoid cells. Avian Pathol 15:557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Uni Z, Pratt WD, Miller MM, O’Connell PH, Schat KA (1994) Syngeneic lysis of reticuloendotheliosis virus-transformed cell lines transfected with Marek’s disease virus genes by virus-specific cytotoxic T cells. Vet Immunol Immunopath 44:57–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Volpini LM, Calnek BW, Sekellick MJ, Marcus PI (1995) Stages of Marek’s disease virus latency defined by variable sensitivity to interferon modulation of viral antigen expression. Vet Microbiol 47:99–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Volpini LM, Calnek BW, Sneath B, Sekellick MJ, Marcus PI (1996) Interferon modulation of Marek’s disease virus genome expression in chicken cell lines. Avian Dis 40:78–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Weinstock D, Schat KA, Calnek BW (1989) Cytotoxic T lymphocytes in reticuloendotheliosis virus-infected chickens. Eur J Immunol 19:267–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Whitley RJ, Kimberlin DW, Roizman B (1998) Herpes simplex viruses. Clin Infect Dis 26:541–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Whitton JL (1998) An overview of antigen presentation and its central role in the immune response. In: Whitton JL (ed) Antigen presentation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 232:1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Whitton JL, Sheng N, Oldstone MBA, McKee TA (1993) A “string-of-beads” vaccine, comprising linked minigenes, confers protection from lethal-dose virus challenge. J Virol 67:348–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Witter RL (1985) Principles of vaccination. In: Payne LN (ed) Marek’s disease. Scientific basis and methods of control, pp 203–250. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston/The HagueGoogle Scholar
  187. Witter RL (2001) Protective efficacy of Marek’s disease vaccines. In: Hirai K (ed) Marek’s disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 255:57–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Witter RL, Burmester BR (1979) Differential effect of maternal antibodies on efficacy of cellular and cell-free Marek’s disease vaccines. Avian Pathol 8:145–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Witter RL, Stephens EA, Sharma JM, Nazerian K (1975) Demonstration of a tumor-associated surface antigen in Marek’s disease. J Immunol 115:177–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Witter RL, Sharma JM, Fadly AM (1980) Pathogenicity of variant Marek’s disease virus isolants in vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens. Avian Dis 24:210–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Witter RL, Deshan L, Jones D, Lee LF, Kung H-J (1997) Retroviral insertional mutagenesis of a herpesvirus: a Marek’s disease virus mutant attenuated for oncogenicity but not for immunosuppression or in vivo replication. Avian Dis 41:407^121PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Xing Z, Schat KA (2000a) Expression of cytokine genes in Marek’s disease virus-infected chickens and chicken embryo fibroblasts. Immunology 100:70–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Xing Z, Schat KA (2000b) Inhibitory effects of nitric oxide and gamma interferon on in vitro and in vivo replication of Marek’s disease virus. J Virol 74:3605–3612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Yeh H-Y, Winslow BJ, Junker DE, Sharma JM (1999) In vitro effects of recombinant chicken interferon-γ on immune cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res 19:687–691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Yoshida S, Lee LF, Yanagida N, Nazerian K (1994) The glycoprotein B genes of Marek’s disease virus serotypes 2 and 3: identification and expression by recombinant fowlpox viruses. Virology 200:484–493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Zaane van D, Brinkhof JMA, Westenbrink F, Gielkens ALJ (1982) Molecular-biological characterisation of Marek’s disease virus. I. Identification of virus-specific polypeptides in infected cells. Virology 121:116–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. A. Schat
    • 1
  • C. J. Markowski-Grimsrud
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Avian Health, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary MedicineCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

Personalised recommendations