Chapter

Signaling Pathways for Translation

Volume 26 of the series Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology pp 115-154

The p70 S6 Kinase Integrates Nutrient and Growth Signals to Control Translational Capacity

  • Joseph AvruchAffiliated withDiabetes Unit and Medical Services, and the Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General HospitalDepartment of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • , Christopher BelhamAffiliated withDiabetes Unit and Medical Services, and the Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General HospitalDepartment of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • , Qing-Peng WengAffiliated withDiabetes Unit and Medical Services, and the Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General HospitalDepartment of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
  • , Kenta HaraAffiliated withBiosignal Research Center, Kobe University
  • , Kazuyoshi YonezawaAffiliated withBiosignal Research Center, Kobe University

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Abstract

The p70 S6 kinase was one of the first insulin/mitogen activated protein (Ser/Thr) kinases to be described. The kinase was purified to homogeneity over a decade ago, its molecular structure defined and the enzymology of its phosphorylation of the 40 S subunit protein S6 well worked out, both in vitro and in vivo. By contrast, the cellular function of the kinase, the mechanisms of activation and the nature of the signal transduction elements upstream have been elucidated only within the last several years. This review will describe our current understanding of the biologic role of the p70 kinase as gleaned from experiments in mammalian cell culture, and through gene deletion in mouse and Drosophila, as well as the regulation of the p70 kinase and the nature of the signal transduction pathways that funnel into the control of this ubiquitous signal-responsive ribosomal protein kinase