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Natural History of JSRV in Sheep

  • J. M. Sharp
  • J. C. DeMartini
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 275)

Abstract

Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a contagious lung tumour of sheep and, rarely, goats that arises from two types of secretory epithelial cell that retain their luxury function of surfactant synthesis and secretion. It is classified as a low-grade adenocarcinoma and is viewed as a good model for epithelial neoplasia because of its morphological resemblance to the human lung tumour, bronchioloalveolar adenocarcinoma. OPA is present in most of the sheep rearing areas of the globe and, in affected flocks, tumours are present in a high proportion of sheep. OPA is associated with the ovine retrovirus, jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), and is transmissible only with inocula that contain JSRV. All sheep contain JSRV-related endogenous viruses, but JSRV is an exogenous virus that is associated exclusively with OPA. JSRV is detected consistently in the lung fluid, tumour and lymphoid tissues of sheep affected by both natural and experimental OPA or unaffected in-contact flockmates and never in sheep from unaffected flocks with no history of the tumour. JSRV replicates principally in the epithelial tumour cells, but also establishes a disseminated infection of several lymphoid cell types, including peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Longitudinal studies in flocks with endemic OPA have revealed JSRV in PBLs before the onset of clinical OPA and even in the absence of discernible lung tumour. The prevalence of JSRV infection is 40%–80%, although only 30% of sheep appear to develop OPA lesions. A unique feature of OPA is the absence of a specific humoral immune response to JSRV, despite the highly productive infection in the lungs and the disseminated lymphoid infection. This feature is associated with reduced responsiveness to some mitogens, although the phenotypic profile of the peripheral blood remains unaltered. The reduced response is an early and sustained event during infection and may indicate that the failure of infected sheep to produce specific antibodies to JSRV is a direct consequence of infection.

Keywords

Long Terminal Repeat Clara Cell Lung Fluid Infected Sheep ATII Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Sharp
    • 1
  • J. C. DeMartini
    • 2
  1. 1.Moredun Research InstitutePenicuikUK
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical SciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA

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