Open Source Mobile Virtual Machines: An Energy Assessment of Dalvik vs. ART

  • Anton B. Georgiev
  • Alberto Sillitti
  • Giancarlo Succi
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT, volume 427)

Abstract

Dalvik Virtual Machine is Open Source Software and an important part of the Android OS and its better understanding and energy optimization can significantly contribute to the overall greenness of the mobile environment. With the introduction of the OSS solution, named Android Runtime (ART) an attempt of performance and energy consumption optimization was made. In this paper we investigate and compare the performance of the Dalvik virtual and ART from energy perspective. In order to answer our research questions we executed a set of benchmarks in identical experimental setup for both runtimes, while measuring the energy spent and percentage of battery discharge. The results showed that in most of the use case scenarios Ahead-Of-Time compilation process of ART is overall more energy efficient than the Just-In- Time one of Dalvik.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Di Bella, E., Sillitti, A., Succi, G.: A multivariate classification of open source developers. Information Sciences 221, 72–83 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kovács, G.L., Drozdik, S., Succi, G., Zuliani, P.: Open source software for the public administration. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Computer Science and Information Technologies (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehringer, D.: The Dalvik Virtual Machine Architecture (March 2010), http://davidehringer.com/software/android/The_Dalvik_Virtual_Machine.pdf (retrieved November 4, 2013)
  4. 4.
    Dalvik (software). In Wikipedia (software) (December 1, 2013), http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dalvik_software (retrieved December 2, 2013)
  5. 5.
    Toombs, C.: Meet ART, Part 2: Benchmarks - Performance Won’t Blow You Away Today, But It Will Get Better (November 12, 2013), http://www.androidpolice.com/2013/11/12/meet-art-part-2-benchmarks-performance-wont-blow-away-today-will-get-better/ (retrieved December 1, 2013)
  6. 6.
    Toombs, C.: Meet ART, Part 3: Battery Life Benchmarks - Not Good, But Not Too Bad (January 22, 2014), http://www.androidpolice.com/2014/01/22/meet-art-part-3-battery-life-benchmarks-not-good-but-not-too-bad/ (retrieved January 26, 2014)
  7. 7.
    Cargill, D.A., Radaideh, M.: A practitioner report on the evaluation of the performance of the C, C++ and Java compilers on the OS/390 platform. In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software, pp. 40–45 (2000)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Corsaro, A., Schmidt, D.: Evaluating Real-Time Java Features and Performance for Real-time Embedded Systems. In: Proceedings of the Eighth IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, pp. 90–100 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kundu, T.K., Kolin, P.: Android on Mobile Devices: An Energy Perspective. In: Proceedings of the 2010 10th IEEE International Conference on Computer and Information Technology, pp. 2421–2426 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olsen, C.M., Narayanaswami, C.: PowerNap: An efficient power management scheme for mobile devices. IEEE Trans. on Mobile Computing 5(7), 816–828 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carroll, A., Heiser, G.: An analysis of power consumption in a smartphone. In: USENIX Annual Tech. Conf., pp. 21–34 (2010)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corral, L., Georgiev, A.B., Sillitti, A., Succi, G.: A Method for Characterizing Energy Consumption in Android Smartphones. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Green and Sustainable Software (GREENS 2013), in connection with ICSE 2013, pp. 38–45 (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang, L., Tiwana, B., Qian, Z., Wang, Z.: Accurate online power estimation and automatic battery behavior based power model generation for smartphones. In: 8th Intl. Conf. on HW/SW Codesign and System Synthesis, pp. 105–114 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wonwoo, J., Chulko, K., Chanmin, Y., Donwon, K., Hojung, C.: DevScope: a nonintrusive and online power analysis tool for smartphone hardware components. In: 8th Intl. Conf. on HW/SW Codesign and System Synthesis, pp. 353–362 (2012)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yoon, C., Kim, D., Jung, W., Kang, C., Cha, H.: AppScope: application energy metering framework for Android smartphone using kernel activity monitoring. In: USENIX Annual Technical Conference (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pathak, A., Hu, Y., Zhang, M.: Where is the energy spent inside my app? Fine grained energy accounting on smartphones with Eprof. In: 7th ACM European Conference on Computer Systems, EuroSys 2012, pp. 29–42 (2012)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Corral, L., Sillitti, A., Succi, G., Strumpflohner, J., Vlasenko, J.: DroidSense: A mobile tool to analyze software development processes by measuring team proximity. In: Furia, C.A., Nanz, S. (eds.) TOOLS 2012. LNCS, vol. 7304, pp. 17–33. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Corral, L., Sillitti, A., Succi, G., Garibbo, A., Ramella, P.: Evolution of mobile software development from platform-Specific to web-Based multiplatform paradigm. In: Proceedings of the 10th SIGPLAN Symposium on New Ideas, New Paradigms, and Reflections on Programming and Software, pp. 181–183. ACM (October 2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    EEMBC, AndEBench (Version 1605) (2014), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.antutu.ABenchMark&hl=en (retrieved)
  20. 20.
    AnTuTu, Antutu Benchmark (Version 4.1.7), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.eembc.coremark (retrieved)
  21. 21.
    Kishonti Ltd. GFXBench 3.0 3D Benchmark (Version 3.0.4) (2014), from https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.glbenchmark.glbenchmark27 (retrieved)
  22. 22.
    Markovic, S.D.: PI Benchmark (Version 1.0) (2014), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=rs.in.luka.android.pi (retrieved)
  23. 23.
    Aurora Softworks, Quadrant Standard Edition (Version 2.1.1) (2014), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.aurorasoftworks.quadrant.ui.standard (retrieved)
  24. 24.
    RedLicense Labs, RL Benchmark: SQLite (Version 1.3) (2014), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.redlicense.benchmark.sqlite (retrieved)
  25. 25.
    Qualcomm Connected Experiences, Inc., Vellamo Mobile Benchmark (Version 2.0.3) (2014), https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.quicinc.vellamo (retrieved)
  26. 26.
    Scotto, M., Sillitti, A., Succi, G., Vernazza, T.: A non-invasive approach to product metrics collection. Journal of Systems Architecture 52(11), 668–675 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anton B. Georgiev
    • 1
  • Alberto Sillitti
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Succi
    • 1
  1. 1.Free University of Bozen Bolzano (UNIBZ)BolzanoItaly

Personalised recommendations