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Neuromuskuläre Erkrankungen bei Intensivpatienten

  • Hans-Peter Hartung
  • Helmar C. Lehmann
  • Bernd C. Kieseier
Chapter

Einleitung

Neuromuskuläre Erkrankungen sind Störungen, die das periphere Nervensystem, die neuromuskuläre Endplatte und/oder die quergestreifte Muskulatur betreffen. Sie können sowohl Ursache als auch Folge einer intensivmedizinischen Behandlung sein.

Neben den allgemeinen Komplikationen, die aufgrund der Immobilität bestehen (z. B. Infektionen, Thrombosen), stellen insbesondere eine Beteiligung der Atemmuskulatur oder die Beteiligung des autonomen Nervensystems krankheitsspezifische Komplikationen dar, die eine intensivmedizinische Behandlung bei neuromuskulären Erkrankungen erforderlich machen. Pathogenetisch kann hierbei eine Störung der elektrischen Erregungsfortbildung entlang des Axons, eine neuromuskuläre Übertragungsstörung oder eine strukturelle Schädigung von Nervenfasern oder Muskelfasern zugrunde liegen. Die Ursachen sind in Tab. 48.1 gezeigt.

Tab. 48.1

Ursachen einer akuten schlaffen Paralyse (mit/ohne Ateminsuffizienz)

1

Neuropathien

 

1.1

Immunvermittelt:...

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Peter Hartung
    • 1
  • Helmar C. Lehmann
    • 1
  • Bernd C. Kieseier
    • 2
  1. 1.Neurologische KlinikUniversitätsklinikum DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland
  2. 2.Neurologische UniversitätsklinikUniversitätsklinikum DüsseldorfDüsseldorfDeutschland

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