Programming and Verifying Component Ensembles

  • Rocco De Nicola
  • Alberto Lluch Lafuente
  • Michele Loreti
  • Andrea Morichetta
  • Rosario Pugliese
  • Valerio Senni
  • Francesco Tiezzi
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8415)


A simplified version of the kernel language SCEL, that we call SCELlight, is introduced as a formalism for programming and verifying properties of so-called cyber-physical systems consisting of software-intensive ensembles of components, featuring complex intercommunications and interactions with humans and other systems. In order to validate the amenability of the language for verification purposes, we provide a translation of SCELlight specifications into Promela. We test the feasibility of the approach by formally specifying an application scenario, consisting of a collection of components offering a variety of services meeting different quality levels, and by using SPIN to verify that some desired behaviors are guaranteed.


Cyber Physical Systems Component-based Systems Formal Methods Process Calculi Verification Model Checking 


  1. 1.
    Project InterLink (2007),
  2. 2.
    Sommerville, I., Cliff, D., Calinescu, R., Keen, J., Kelly, T., Kwiatkowska, M.Z., McDermid, J.A., Paige, R.F.: Large-scale complex IT systems. Commun. ACM 55(7), 71–77 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    De Nicola, R., Loreti, M., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: A formal approach to autonomic systems programming: the SCEL Language. ACM Transactions on Autonomous and Adaptive Systems (to appear, 2014), available as Technical Report from
  4. 4.
    Cesari, L., De Nicola, R., Pugliese, R., Puviani, M., Tiezzi, F., Zambonelli, F.: Formalising Adaptation Patterns for Autonomic Ensembles. In: Proc. of the 10th International Symposium on Formal Aspects of Component Software (FACS 2013). LNCS, Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Nicola, R., Ferrari, G., Loreti, M., Pugliese, R.: A Language-Based Approach to Autonomic Computing. In: Beckert, B., Damiani, F., de Boer, F.S., Bonsangue, M.M. (eds.) FMCO 2011. LNCS, vol. 7542, pp. 25–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2012), Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Margheri, A., Pugliese, R., Tiezzi, F.: Linguistic Abstractions for Programming and Policing Autonomic Computing Systems. In: Proc. of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Autonomic and Trusted Computing (ATC 2013). IEEE Computer Society (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mayer, P., Klarl, A., Hennicker, R., Puviani, M., Tiezzi, F., Pugliese, R., Keznikl, J., Bures, T.: The Autonomic Cloud: A vision of voluntary, peer-2-peer cloud computing. In: Proc. of the 2013 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops (SASOW 2013). IEEE Computer Society (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bures, T., De Nicola, R., Gerostathopoulos, I., Hoch, N., Kit, M., Koch, N., Monreale, G., Montanari, U., Pugliese, R., Serbedzija, N., Wirsing, M., Zambonelli, F.: A Life Cycle for the Development of Autonomic Systems: The e-mobility showcase. In: Proc. of the 2013 IEEE Seventh International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems Workshops (SASOW 2013). IEEE Computer Society (2014)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holzmann, G.J.: The model checker SPIN. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 23(5), 279–295 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Nicola, R., Ferrari, G., Pugliese, R.: Klaim: A Kernel Language for Agents Interaction and Mobility. IEEE Trans. Software Eng. 24(5), 315–330 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    ASCENS: Autonomic service-component ensembles,
  12. 12.
    Belzner, L., De Nicola, R., Vandin, A., Wirsing, M.: Reasoning (on) Service Component Ensembles in Rewriting Logic. In: Iida, S., Meseguer, J., Ogata, K. (eds.) Specification, Algebra, and Software: A Festschrift Symposium in Honor of Kokichi Futatsugi, SAS 2014 (to appear, April 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    Demartini, C., Iosif, R., Sisto, R.: dSPIN: A Dynamic Extension of SPIN. In: Dams, D., Gerth, R., Leue, S., Massink, M. (eds.) SPIN 1999. LNCS, vol. 1680, pp. 261–276. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iosif, R.: Symmetry reductions for model checking of concurrent dynamic software. STTT 6(4), 302–319 (2004)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bozga, M., Jaber, M., Maris, N., Sifakis, J.: Modeling Dynamic Architectures Using Dy-BIP. In: Gschwind, T., De Paoli, F., Gruhn, V., Book, M. (eds.) SC 2012. LNCS, vol. 7306, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Basu, A., Bensalem, S., Bozga, M., Combaz, J., Jaber, M., Nguyen, T.H., Sifakis, J.: Rigorous component-based system design using the BIP framework. IEEE Software 28(3), 41–48 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rocco De Nicola
    • 1
  • Alberto Lluch Lafuente
    • 1
  • Michele Loreti
    • 2
  • Andrea Morichetta
    • 1
  • Rosario Pugliese
    • 1
  • Valerio Senni
    • 1
  • Francesco Tiezzi
    • 1
  1. 1.IMT Institute for Advanced Studies LuccaItaly
  2. 2.Università degli Studi di FirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations