Neurofeedback with Real-Time Functional MRI

  • Rainer GoebelEmail author
  • David Linden


Since its invention 20 years ago, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become one of the most widely used and probably the publicly most visible noninvasive technique to measure brain activation. fMRI has played a central role in the development of cognitive neuroscience, and several new fields, including social neuroscience, neuroeconomics, and genetic imaging, may not have developed had it not been for the unique opportunities afforded by fMRI. The particular strengths of this technique are in its spatial resolution and fidelity, ability to reach deep subcortical structures, and whole-brain coverage, enabling the mapping of functionally connected networks and the extraction of information from activation patterns that are distributed across different brain areas. In the psychiatric domain, fMRI has made major contributions to the understanding of psychopathology and the effects of risk genes on cognitive and affective networks (Linden 2012a, b), and in neurology fMRI has become a central technique for mapping neuroplasticity, for example, in recovery from stroke (Seitz 2010), and for presurgical mapping. However, fMRI has not yet fulfilled its translational potential, and there is as of today no established diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic use of this technique for any of the neuropsychiatric disorders.


Motor Imagery Supplementary Motor Area Functional Volume Neurofeedback Training Slow Cortical Potential 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Anterior commissure-posterior commissure


Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder


Deep-brain stimulation


Discrete cosine transform


Swiss Federal Institute of Technology


fMRI-/EEG-based neurofeedback


General linear model


General purpose graphic processing units


Independent component analysis


Multi-voxel pattern analysis


Parkinson’s disease


Supplementary motor area


Support vector machine


Transcranial direct current stimulation


Transcranial magnetic stimulation


Volume time to repeat


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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and NeuroscienceMaastricht UniversityMaastrichtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Neuroimaging and NeuromodellingNetherlands Institute for NeuroscienceAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical NeurosciencesCardiff University School of MedicineCardiffUK

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