Cuticle: Formation, Moulting and Control

  • Werner Gnatzy
  • Franz Romer


The relative rigidity of the arthropod exoskeleton makes it impossible for body size to increase continuously during the postembryonic development of these animals. Once they have hatched from the egg, they grow in steps, passing through a variable number of (larval) stages (Fig. 1 a). Apart from a few exceptions, there are between 3 and 10 such stages in the arachnids, 3–20 in the crustaceans, and 3–10 in the insects. In many cases a metamorphosis stage intervenes (some crustaceans; holometabolous insects) (Fig. 9b, c).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agui N, Yagi S, Fukaya M (1969) Induction of moulting of cultivated integument taken from a diapausing rice stem borer larva in the presence of ecdysterone. Appl Entomol 20014:156–157Google Scholar
  2. Agui N, Granger NA, Gilbert LI, Bollenbacher WE (1979) Cellular localization of the insect prothoracicotropic hormone: In vitro assay of a single neurosecretory cell. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5694–5698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Altner H, Thies G (1972) Reizleitende Strukturen und Ablauf der Häutung an Sensillen einer euedaphischen Collembolenart. Z Zellforsch 129:196–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andersen SO (1976) Cuticular enzymes and sclerotization in insects. In: Hepburn HR (ed) The insect integument. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 121–144Google Scholar
  5. Ashburner M (1973) Sequential gene activation by ecdysone in polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. I Dependence upon ecdysone concentration. Dev Biol 35:47–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bade ML, Stinson A (1978) Digestion of cuticle chitin during the moult of Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) Insect Biochem 9:221–231Google Scholar
  7. Bade ML, Wyatt GR (1962) Metabolic conversions during pupation of the cecropia silkworm 1. Deposition and utilization of nutrient reserves. Biochem J 83:470–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bainbridge PS, Bownes M (1981) Staging the metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster. J Embryol Exp Morphol 66:57–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbier R (1975) Différenciation de structures ciliares et mise en place des canaux au cours de l’organogenese des glandes colléteriques de Galleria mellonella L. (Lépidoptère Pyrali-dae). J Microsc 24:315–326Google Scholar
  10. Berendes HD (1967) The hormone ecdysone as effector of specific changes in the pattern of gene activities of Drosophila hydei. Chromosoma 22:274–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berry SJ, Johnson E (1975) Formation of temporary flagellar structures during insect organo-gensis. J Cell Biol 65:489–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bitsch J (1981a) Ultrastructure de l’épithelium glandulaire du réceptacle seminal chez Thermo-bia domestica (Thysanura Lepismatidae). Int J Insect Morphol Embryol 10:247–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bitsch J (1981b) Ultrastructural modifications of the glandular epithelium of the receptaculum seminis in Thermobia domestica (Insecta: Thysanura) during the moulting period. Cell Tissue Res 220:99–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bitsch J, Palevody C (1976) Modifications ultrastructurales des glandes vésiculaires des Machili-dae (Insecta, Thysanura) au cours des cycles de mue. Zoomorphologie 83:84–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Biais C, Lafont R (1980) In vitro differentiation of Pieris brassicae imaginai wing discs: Effects and metabolism of ecdysone and ecdysterone. Wilhelm Roux’ Arch 188:27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blaney WM, Chapman RF, Cook AG (1971) The structure of the terminal sensilla on the maxillary palps of Locusta migratoria (L) and changes associated with moulting. Z Zell-forsch 121:48–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bollenbacher WE, Zvenko H, Kumaran AK, Gilbert LI (1978) Changes in ecdysone content during postembryonic development of the wax moth Galleria mellonella: The role of the ovary. Gen Comp Endocrinol 34:169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bollenbacher WE, Agui N, Granger NA, Gilbert LI (1979) In vitro activation of insect protho-racic glands by the prothoracicotropic hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:5148–5152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bonaric JC (1980) Contribution a l’étude de la biologie du développement chez l’araignée Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck 1758). Approche physiologique des phénomènes de mue et de diapause hivernale. Thèse Doct Etat Montpellier, p 282Google Scholar
  20. Bonaric JC, DeReggi M (1977) Changes in ecdysone levels in the spider Pisaura mirabilis nymphs (Araneae Pisauridae). Experientia 33:1664–1665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bordereau Ch (1982) Ultrastructure and formation of the physogastric termite queen cuticle. Tissue Cell 14:371–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Borst DW, Engelmann F (1974) In vitro secretion of a-ecdysone by pro thoracic glands of a hemimetabolous insect, Leucophaea maderae (Blattaria) J Exp Zool 189:413–419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Butenandt A, Karlson P (1954) Über die Isolierung eines Metamorphosehormons der Insekten in kristallisierter Form. Z Naturforsch 9b:389–391Google Scholar
  24. Carrow GM, Calabrese RL, Williams CM (1981) Spontaneous and evoked release of prothora-cicotropin from multiple neurohaemal organs of the tobacco hornworm. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:5866–5870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cassier P (1977) La différenciation imaginale du tégument chez le criquet pèlerin Schistocerca gregaria Forsk. IV Les étapes de la morphogenèse des unités glandulaire. Arch Anat Microsc Morphol Exp 66:145–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cassier P, Baehr JC, Caruelle JP, Porcheron P, Jaques C (1980) The integument and ecdyste-roids: in vivo and in vitro studies. In: Hoffmann J (ed) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 235–246Google Scholar
  27. Caveney S (1970) Juvenile hormone and wound modelling of Tenebrio cuticle architecture. J Insect Physiol 16:1087–1107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Caveney S, Berdan RC, McLean S (1980) Cell-to-cell ionic communication stimulated by 20-hydroxyecdysone occurs in the absence of protein synthesis and gap junction growth. J Insect Physiol 26:557–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chadwick LE (1955) Moulting in insects without prothoracic glands. Science 121:435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chang ES, O’Connor JD (1978) In vitro secretion and hydroxylation of a-ecdysone as a function of the crustacean molt cycle. Gen Comp Endocrinol 36:151–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chevone BJ, Richards AG (1977) Ultrastructural changes in intersegmental cuticle during rotation of the terminal abdominal segments in a mosquito. Tissue Cell 9:241–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chino H, Sakurai S, Othaki T, Ikekawa N, Miyazaki H, Ishibashi M, Abuki H (1974) Biosynthesis of α-ecdysone by the prothoracic glands in vitro. Science 183:529–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Clever U (1958) Untersuchungen zur Zelldifferenzierung und Musterbildung der Sinnesorgane und des Nervensystems im Wachsmottenflügel. Z Morphol Oekol Tiere 47:201–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Clever U, Karlson P (1960) Induktion von Puff-Veränderungen in den Speicheldrüsenchromosomen von Chironomus tentons durch Eedyson. J Exp Cell Res 20:623–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Copenhaver PhF, Truman J (1982) The role of eclosion hormone in the larval ecdyses of Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 28:695–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dall W (1965) Studies on the physiology of a shrimp Metapenaeus sp. (Crustacea Decapoda: Penaeidae). Aust J Mar Freshwater Res 16:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dean RL (1978) The induction of autophagy in isolated insect fat body by β-ecdysone. J Insect Physiol 24:439–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dean RL, Bollenbacher WE, Locke M, Smith SL, Gilbert LI (1980) Haemolymph ecdysteroid levels and cellular events in the intermoult/moult sequence of Calpodes ethlius. J Insect Physiol 26:267–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Dejours P, Beckenkamp H (1978) L’équilibre acide-base de l’hémolymphe au cours de la mue chez l’écrevisse. CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 286:1895–1898Google Scholar
  40. Delachambre J (1967) Origine et nature de la membrane exuviale chez la nymphe le Tenebrio molitor L (Ins. Coleoptera). Z Zellforsch 81:114–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Delachambre J (1970) Etudes sur l’épicuticle des insectes. I Le développement de l’épicuticule chez l’adulte de Tenebrio molitor L. Z Zellforsch 108:380–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Delachambre J (1975) Les variations de l’architecture dans la cuticle abdominale chez Tenebrio molitor L (Ins Col). Tissue Cell 7:669–676PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Delachambre J, Besson MT, Connant JL, Delbeque JP (1980) Ecdysteroid titres and integumen-tal events during the metamorphosis of Tenebrio molitor. In: Hoffmann J (ed) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsvier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 211–234Google Scholar
  44. Delbecque JP, Sláma K (1980) Ecdysteroid titres during autonomous metamorphosis in a dermestid beetle. Z Naturforsch 35c: 1066–1080Google Scholar
  45. Delbecque JP, Prost M, Maume BF, Delachambre J, Lafont R, Mauchamp B (1975) Dosage de 1a β-ecdysone par fragmentographie de masse au cours du dernier stade larvaire de Tenebrio molitor L (Insecte Coléoptère). CR Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 281:309–312Google Scholar
  46. Delbecque JP, Hirn M, Delachambre J, DeReggi M (1978a) Cuticular cycle molting hormone levels during the metamorphosis of Tenebrio molitor (Insecta Coleoptera). Dev Biol 64:11–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Delbecque JP, Diehl PA, O’Connor (1978b) Presence of ecdysone and ecdysterone in the tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch. Experientia 34:1389–1391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Delbecque JP, Delachambre J, Hirn M (1978c) Abdominal production of β-ecdysone and pupal-adult development in Tenebrio molitor (Insecta, Coleoptera). Gen Comp Endocrinol 35:436–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Dinan LN, Rees HH (1981) The identification and titres of conjugated and free ecdysteroids in developing ovaries and newly-laid eggs of Schistocerca gregaria. J Insect Physiol 27:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Doughtie DG, Rao KR (1979) Ultrastructure of an exocrine dermal gland in the gills of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio: Occurrence of transitory ciliary axonemes associated with the sloughing and reformation of the ductule. J Morphol 161:281–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Doughtie DG, Rao KR (1982) Rosette glands in the gills of the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. II Premolt ductule reformation: Replacement of ciliary processes by cytoplasmic processes in relation to gland maturation. J Morphol 17:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Edwards J, Chen Su-Wan (1979) Embryonic development of an insect sensory system, the abdominal cerci of Acheta domesticus. Wilhelm Roux Arch 186:151–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Emmerich H (1972) Ecdysone binding proteins in nuclei and chromatin from Drosophila salivary glands. Gen Comp Endocrinol 19:543–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Emmerich H (1977) Über den Wirkungsmechanismus der Häutungshormone der Arthropoden. Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 1977:184–201Google Scholar
  55. Engelmann F (1972) Juvenile hormone-induced RNA and specific protein synthesis in an adult insect. Gen Comp Endocrinol [Suppl] 3:168–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ernst KD (1969) Die Feinstruktur von Riechsensillen auf der Antenne des Aaskäfers Necropho-rus (Coleoptera). Z Zellforsch 94:72–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ernst KD (1972) Die Ontogenie der basiconischen Riechsensillen auf der Antenne von Necro-phorus (Coleoptera). Z Zellforsch 129:217–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ferkovich SM, Silhacek DL, Rutter RR (1976) The binding of juvenile hormone to larval epidermis: Influence of carrier protein from the hemolymph of Plodia interpunctella. In: Gilbert LI (ed) The juvenile hormones. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 342–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Filshie BK (1970) The fine structure and deposition of larval cuticle of the sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina). Tissue Cell 2:479–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Filshie BK (1976) The structure and deposition of the epicuticle of the adult female cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). In: Hepburn HJ (ed) The insect integument. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 193–206Google Scholar
  61. Fraenkel G, Hsiao C (1965) Bursicon, a hormone which mediates tanning of the cuticle in the adult fly and other insects. J Insect Physiol 11:513–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Fukuda S (1940) Induction of pupation in silkworm by transplanting the prothoracic gland. Proc Imp Acad (Tokyo) 16:414–416Google Scholar
  63. Gabe M (1953) Sur l’existence chez quelques crustacés malacostracés d’un organe comparable á la glande de la mue des insectes. C R Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 237:1111–1113Google Scholar
  64. Gande AR, Morgan ED (1979) Ecdysteroids in the developing eggs of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. J Insect Physiol 25:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Germond JE, Diehl PA, Morici M (1982) Correlations between integument structure and ecdysteroid titres in fifth-stage nymphs of the tick, Ornithodorus moubata (Murray 1877, sensu Walton 1962). Gen Comp Endocrinol 46:255–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gersch M (1977) Häutungen von Insekten ohne Häutungsdrüse: Befunde mit Larven von Periplaneta americana. Experientia 33:228–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Gersch M, Eibisch H, Böhm GA, Koolman J (1979) Ecdysteroid production by the cephalic gland of the crayfish Orconectes limosus. Gen Comp Endocrinol 39:505–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ghiradella H (1974) Development of ultraviolet reflecting butterfly scales: how to make an interference filter. J Morphol 142:395–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ghiradella H, Radigan W (1976) Development of butterfly scales II Struts lattices and surface tension. J Morphol 150:279–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ghysen A, Richelle J (1979) Determination of sensory bristles and pattern formation in Drosophila II The achaete-scute locus. Dev Biol 70:438–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gilbert LI (ed) (1976) The juvenile hormones. Plenum Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  72. Gnatzy W (1970) Struktur und Entwicklung des Integuments und der Oenocyten von Culex pipiens L (Dipt.) Z Zellforsch 110:401–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gnatzy W (1975) Feinstrukturelle Grundlagen für die Tätigkeit epidermaler Rezeptoren von Insekten während eines Zwischenhäutungs-und Häutungszyklus. Untersuchungen an Gryllus bimaculatus Deg. (Orthoptera) und Calliphora erythrocephala Meig (Diptera). Habilitationsschrift, Univ MainzGoogle Scholar
  74. Gnatzy W (1978) Development of the filiform hairs on the cerci of Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria Gryllidae). Cell Tissue Res 187:1–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Gnatzy W, Romer F (1980) Morphogenesis of mechanoreceptor and epidermal cells of crickets during the last instar, and its relation to molting-hormone level. Cell Tissue Res 213:369–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gnatzy W, Schmidt K (1972a) Die Feinstruktur der Sinneshaare auf den Cerci von Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria Gryllidae) IV Die Häutung der kurzen Borstenhaare. Z Zellforsch 126:223–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Gnatzy W, Schmidt K (1972b) Die Feinstruktur der Sinneshaare auf den Cerci von Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria Gryllidae) V Die Häutung der langen Borstenhaare an der Cercusbasis. J Microsc 14:75–84Google Scholar
  78. Gnatzy W, Schmidt M (1982) Sind die Trichterkanalorgane die’ campaniformen Sensillen’ der Crustaceen? Verh Dtsch Zool Ges 1982:249Google Scholar
  79. Gnatzy W, Tautz J (1977) Sensitivity of an insect mechanoreceptor during moulting. Physiol Entomol 2:278–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gnatzy W, Tautz J (1980) Ultrastructure and mechanical properties of an insect mechanoreceptor: Stimulus-transmitting structures and sensory apparatus of the cercal filiform hairs of Gryllus. Cell Tissue Res 213:441–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Green JP, Neff MR (1972) A survey of the fine structure of the integument of the fiddler crab. Tissue Cell 4:137–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Greenway PC (1976) The regulation of haemolymph calcium concentration of the crab Carcinus maenas (L). J Exp Biol 64:149–157Google Scholar
  83. Greenstein ME (1972a) The ultrastructure of developing wings in the giant silkmoth Hyalo-phora cecropia. I Generalized epidermal cells. J Morphol 136:1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Greenstein ME (1972b) The ultrastructure of developing wings in the giant silkmoth Hyalo-phora cecropia. II Scale-forming and socket-forming cells. J Morphol 136:1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gronenmeyer H, Pongs O (1980) Localisation of ecdysterone on polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:2108–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Guse GW (1976) Bau und Häutung antennaler Sensillen von Neomysis integer Leach (Crustacea, Mysidacea). Licht-und electronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen. Thesis, Univ MainzGoogle Scholar
  87. Guse GW (1980) Fine structure of sensilla during moulting in Neomysis integer (Leach) (Crustacea Mysidacea). Experientia 36:1382–1384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hackman RH (1982) Structure and function in tick cuticle. Ann Rev Entomol 27:75–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hadley NF (1981) Fine structure of the cuticle of the black widow spider with reference to surface lipids. Tissue Cell 13:805–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Happ GM, Happ CM (1977) Cytodifferentiation in the accessory glands of Tenebrio molitor. III Fine structure of the spermathecal accessory gland in pupa. Tissue Cell 9:711–732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Harris DJ (1977) Hair regeneration during moulting in the spider Cintflo similis (Araneae Dictynidae). Zoomorphology 88:37–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Haupt J (1982) Hair regeneration in a solfugid chemotactile sensillum during moulting (Arach-nida: Solifugae). Wilhelm Roux’ Arch 191:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Haupt J, Coineau Y (1978) Moulting and morphogenesis of sensilla in a prostigmate mite. Cell Tissue Res 186:63–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Henke K (1953) Über Zelldifferenzierungen im Integument der Insekten und ihre Bedingungen. J Embryol Exp Morphol 1:217–226Google Scholar
  95. Hillerton JE (1978) Changes in the structure and composition of the extensible cuticle of Rhodnius prolixus through the 5th larval instar. J Insect Physiol 24:399–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hinton H (1946) Concealed phases in the metamorphosis of insects. Nature 157:552PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hinton HE (1973) Neglected phases in metamorphosis: a reply to VB Wigglesworth. J Entomol (A) 48:57–68Google Scholar
  98. Hirn M, Hetru C, Lagueux M, Hoffmann JA (1979) Prothoracic gland activity and blood titres of ecdysone and ecdysterone during the last larval instar of Locus ta migrator ia L. J Insect Physiol 25:255–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hoffmann J, Koolman J, Beyler C (1975) Rôle des glandes prothoraciques dans la production d’ecdysone au cours de dernier stade larvaire de Locusta migratoria L. C R Acad Sci [D] (Paris) 280:733–736Google Scholar
  100. Hoffmann JA (ed) (1980) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsevier, North Holland, pp 491Google Scholar
  101. Horn DHS, Middleton EJ, Wunderlich JA, Hampshire F (1966) Identity of the moulting hormones of insects and crustaceans. Chem Commun 339–341Google Scholar
  102. Hsiao TH, Hsiao C (1977) Simultaneous determination of molting and juvenile hormone titres of the greater wax moth. J Insect Physiol 23:89–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Huber R, Hoppe W (1965) Die Kristall-und Molekülstrukturanalyse des Insekten verpuppungs-hormons Eedyson mit der automatisierten Faltmolekülmethode. Chem Ber 98:2403–2424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Huner JV, Colvin LB, Reid BL (1979) Postmolt mineralization of the exoskeleton of juvenile California brown shrimp Penaeus californiensis (Decapoda Penaeidae). Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 62:884–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ilan J, Ilan J (1975) Regulation of messenger RNA translation during insect development. In: Mosiona AA, Monroy A (eds) Current Topics in Developmental Biology, vol 9, pp 89–136Google Scholar
  106. Jegla TC, Costlow JD (1979) The Limulus bioassay for ecdysteroids. Biol Bull 156:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Jenkins PM, Hinton HE (1966) Apolysis in arthropod moulting cycles. Nature 211:871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Jeuniaux C (1953) Resorption de liquide exuvial chez le ver á soie (Bombyx mori L). Arch Int Physiol Biochem 66:121–122Google Scholar
  109. Jungreis AM (1973) Formation and composition of moulting fluid in the silkmoth Hyalophora cecropia. Ann Zool 13:270Google Scholar
  110. Jungreis AM (1974) Physiology and composition of moulting fluid and midgut lumenal contents in the silkmoth Hyalophora cecropia. J Comp Physiol 88:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Jungreis AM (1978a) The composition of larval-pupal moulting fluid in the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 24:65–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jungreis AM (1978b) Physiology of moulting in insects. In: Treherne JE, Berridge MJ, Wiggles-worth VB (eds) Advances of Insect Physiology 14:109–183Google Scholar
  113. Kaplanis JN, Dutky SR, Robbins WE, Thompson MJ, Lindquist EL, Horn DHS, Galbraith MN (1975) Makisterone A: A 28-carbon hexahydroxy molting hormone from embryo of the milkweed bug. Science 190:681–682PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Karlson P (1955) Die Prothorakaldrüsenhormone der Insekten: Chemische Eigenschaften und physiologische Bedeutung. 3. Congr Int Biochem, Broux 1g 55Google Scholar
  115. Karlson P, Sekeris CE (1976) Control of tyrosine metabolism and cuticle sclerotization by ecdysone. In: Hepburn HR (ed) The insect integument. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 145–156Google Scholar
  116. Katzenellenbogen BS, Kafatos FC (1970) Some properties of silkmoth moulting gel and moulting fluid. J Insect Physiol 16:2241–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Katzenellenbogen BS, Kafatos FC (1971) Inactive proteinases in silkmoth moulting gel. J Insect Physiol 17:823–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Keller K, Willig A (1976) Experimental evidence of the molt controlling function of the Y-Organ of a macruran decapod Orconectes limosus. J Comp Physiol 108:271–278Google Scholar
  119. Keller R, Schmid E (1979) In vitro secretion of ecdysteroids by Y-organs and lack of secretion by mandibular organs of the crayfish following molt induction. J Comp Physiol 130:347–353Google Scholar
  120. Kelly TJ, Woods CW, Redfern RE, Borkovec AB (1981) Makisterone A: The molting hormone of larval Oncopeltus. J Exp Zool 218:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. King DS, Marks EP (1974) The secretion and metabolism of a-ecdysone by cockroach (Leuco-phaea maderae) tissues in vitro. Life Sci 15:147–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. King DS, Bollenbacher WE, Borst DW, Vedeckis VW, O’Connor JD, Ittycheriah PI, Gilbert LI (1974) The secretion of a-ecdysone by the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta in vitro. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 71:793–796PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kobayashi M, Yamazaki M (1974) Brain hormone. In: Burdette WJ (ed) Invertebrate endocrinology and hormone heterophylly. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Koolman J (1982) Ecdysone metabolism. Insect Biochem 12:225–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kopec S (1922) Studies on the necessity of the brain for the inception of insect metamorphosis. Biol Bull 42:323–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Koulish S, Klepal W (1981) Ultrastructure of the epidermis and cuticle during the moult-intermoult cycle in two species of adult barnacles. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 19:121–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Krumins R (1952) Die Borstenentwicklung bei der Wachsmotte Galleria melonella L. Biol Zentralbl 71:183–210Google Scholar
  128. Kühn A (1971) Lectures on developmental physiology. (R Milkman translator). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  129. Kühn A, Piepho H (1936) Über hormonale Wirkungen bei der Verpuppung der Schmetterlinge. Nachr Ges Wiss Goettingen, Math-Phys Kl NF Fachg VI 2:141–154Google Scholar
  130. Kümmel G, Classen H, Keller R (1970) Zur Feinstruktur von Cuticula und Epidermis beim Flusskrebs Orconectes limosus während eines Häutungszyklus. Z Zellforsch 109:517–551PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Kunkel JG (1975) Cockroach molting. I. Temporal organisation of events during the molting cycle of Blatella germanica (L). Biol Bull Mar Bio Lab 148:259–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Lachaise F, Goudeau M, Hetru Ch, Kappler Ch, Hoffmann J (1981) Ecdysteroids and ovarian development in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem 362:521–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lafont R, Mauchamp B, Pennetier JL, Tarroux P, DeHys L, Delbecque JP (1975) The α-and β-ecdysone levels in insect hemolymph. Correlation with developmental events. Expe-rientia 31:1241–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lafont R, Mauchamp B, Blais C, Pennetier JL (1977) Ecdysones and imaginai disc development during the last larval instar of Pieris brassicae. J Insect Physiol 23:277–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Lai-Fook J (1973) The fine structure of Verson’s gland in molting larvae of Calpodes ethlius (Hesperiidae Lepidoptera). Can J Zool 51:1201–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lanzrein B, Hashimoto M, Parmakovich V, Nakanishi K, Wilhelm R, Lüscher M (1975) Identification and quantification of juvenile hormone from different developmental stages of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Life Sci 16:1271–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Laufer H, Calvet JP (1972) Hormonal effects on chromosomal puffs and insect development. Gen Comp Endocrinol [Suppl] 3:137–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lawrence PA (1966) Development and determination of hairs and bristles in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Lygaeidae Hemiptera). J Cell Sci 1:475–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Lawrence PA, Staddon A (1975) Peculiarities of the epidermal gland system of the cotton stainer Dysdercus fasciatus Signoret (Heteroptera: Pyrrhocoridae). J Entomol 49:121–130Google Scholar
  140. Lensky Y, Cohen C, Schneiderman HA (1970) The origin, distribution and fate of the moulting fluid proteins of the Cecropia silkworm. Biol Bull Woods Hole Mass 139:277–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Lezzi M, Gilbert LI (1969) Control of gene activities in the polytene chromosomes of Chirono-mus tentans by ecdysone and juvenile hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 64:498–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lipp C (1957) Die Bedeutung differentieller Zellteilungen bei der Entstehung des Schuppenmusters auf dem Flügel von Pieris brassicae. Biol Zentralbl 76:681–700Google Scholar
  143. Locke M (1961) Pore canals and related structures in insect cuticle. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 10:589–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Locke M (1964) The structure and formation of the integument in insects. In: Rockstein M (ed) Physiology of insecta, vol III. Academic Press, London New York, pp 379–470Google Scholar
  145. Locke M (1966) The structure and formation of the cuticulin layer in the epicuticle of an insect Calpodes ethlius (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). J Morphol 118:461–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Locke M (1969a) The structure of an epidermal cell during the development of the protein epicuticle and the uptake of molting fluid in an insect. J Morphol 127:7–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Locke M (1969b) The ultrastructure of the oenocytes in the molt/intermolt cycle of an insect. Tissue Cell 1:103–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Locke M (1970) The molt-intermolt cycle in the epidermis and other tissues of an insect Calpodes ethlius, Lepidoptera Hesperiidae. Tissue Cell 2:197–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Locke M (1976) The role of plasma membrane plaques and Golgi complex vesicles in cuticle deposition during the moult/intermoult cycle. In: Hepburn HR (ed) The insect integument. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 237–258Google Scholar
  150. Locke M, Huie P (1979) Apolysis and the turnover of plasma membrane plaques during cuticle formation in an insect. Tissue Cell 11:277–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Locke M, Krishnan N (1971) The distribution of phenoloxidases and polyphenols during cuticle formation. Tissue Cell 3:103–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Locke M, Krishnan N (1973) The formation of the ecdysial droplets and the ecdysial membrane in an insect. Tissue Cell 5:441–450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lococo D, Huebner E (1980) The ultrastructure of the female accessory gland, the cement gland, in the insect Rhodnius prolixus. Tissue Cell 12:557–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Malek SRA (1958) The origin and nature of the ecdysial membrane in Schistocerca gregaria (Forskäl). J Insect Physiol 2:298–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mauchamp B, Lafont R, Jourdain D (1979) Mass fragmentographic analysis of juvenile hormone levels during the last larval instar of Pieris brassicae. J Insect Physiol 25:545–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Menzel R, Moch K, Wladarz G, Lindauer M (1969) Tagesperiodische Ablagerungen in der Endokutikula der Honigbiene. Biol Zentralbl 88:61–67Google Scholar
  157. Mitchell HK, Weber-Tracy VM, Schaar G (1971) Aspects of cuticle formation in Drosophila melanogaster. J Exp Zool 176:429–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Mitsui T, Riddiford L (1976) Pupal cuticle formation by Manduca sexta epidermis in vitro: Patterns of ecdysone sensitivity. Dev Biol 54:172–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Moran DT, Carter Rowley III J, Zill JN, Varela FG (1976) The mechanism of sensory transduction in a mechanoreceptor. J Cell Biol 71:832–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Nakanishi K, Moriyama H, Okauchi T, Fujioka S, Korreda M (1972) Biosynthesis of α-and β-ecdysone from cholesterol outside the prothoracic gland in Bombyx mori. Science 176:51–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Neville AC (1975) Biology of the arthropod cuticle. In: Zoophysiology and ecology 415. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  162. Nijhout HF (1978) Wing pattern formation in lepidoptera: A model. J Exp Zool 206:119–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Noirot Ch, Quennedey A (1974) Fine structure of insect epidermal glands. Annu Rev Entomol 19:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Norvales RR, Gilbert LI, Brown FAJR (1973) Endocrine mechanisms. In: Proster CL (ed) Comparative animal physiology. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 857–908Google Scholar
  165. Overton J (1966) Microtubules and microfibrils in morphogenesis of the scale cells of Ephestia kühniella. J Cell Biol 29:293–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Overton J (1967) The fine structure of developing bristles in wild type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Morphol 122:367–380PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Passano LM (1960) Moulting and its control. In: Waterman T (ed) The physiology of Crustacea, vol I. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  168. Passoneau JV, Williams CM (1953) The moulting fluid of the Cecropia silkworm. J Exp Biol 30:545–560Google Scholar
  169. Paweletz N, Schlote FW (1964) Die Entwicklung der Schmetterlingsschuppe bei Ephestia kühniella Zeller. Z Zellforsch 63:840–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Perry MH (1968) Further studies in the development of the eye of Drosophila melanogaster II. The interommatidial bristles. J Morphol 124:249–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Peters W (1965) Die Sinnesorgane an den Labellen von Calliphora erythrocephala Mg (Diptera). Z Morphol Oecol Tiere 55:259–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Piepho H (1948) Zur Frage der Bildungsorgane des Häutungswirkstoffes bei Schmetterlingen. Naturwissenschaften 35:94–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Piepho H, Meyer H (1951) Reaktionen der Schmetterlingshaut auf Häutungshormone. Biol Zentralbl 70:251–260Google Scholar
  174. Poodry CA (1980) Epidermis: Morphology and Development. In: Ashburner M, Wright TRF (eds) The genetics and biology of Drosophila, vol IID. Academic Press, London New York, pp 443–497Google Scholar
  175. Poodry CA, Schneiderman HA (1970) The ultrastructure of the developing leg of Drosophila melanogaster. Wilhelm Roux’ Arch 166:1–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Price JB, Holdich DM (1980) The formation of epicuticle and associated structures in Oniscus asellus (Crustacea Isopoda). Zoomorphology 94:321–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Reaka MC (1975) Molting in stomatopod crustaceans. I Stages of the molt cycle, setagenesis and morphology. J Morphol 146:55–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Richards G (1981) Insect hormones in development. Biol Rev 56:501–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Richelle J, Ghysen A (1979) Determination of sensory bristles and pattern formation in Drosophila I. A model. Dev Biol 70:418–437Google Scholar
  180. Riddiford LM (1980) Interaction of ecdysteroids and juvenile hormone in the regulation of larval growth and metamorphosis of the tobacco hornworm. In: Hoffmann J (ed) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 409–430Google Scholar
  181. Riddiford LM, Curtis A (1978) Hormonal control of epidermal detachment during the final feeding stage of the tobacco hornworm larva. J Insect Physiol 24:561–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Rieder N (1977) Ultrastruktur und Funktion der Hautdrüsen von Triops cancriformis Bosc (Crustacea Notostraca). Zoomorphologie 88:133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Rinterknecht E, Levi P (1966) Étude au microscope électronique du cycle cuticulaire au cours du 4eme stade larvaire chez Locusta migratoria. Z Zellforsch 72:390–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Röller H, Dahm KH, Sweeley CC, Trost BM (1967) The structure of the juvenile hormone. Angew Chem [Engl] 6:179–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Rönsch G (1954) Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen zur Zelldifferenzierung am Flügel der Trichoptere Limnophilus flavicornis Fabr. Z Morphol Oekol Tiere 43:1–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Roer RD (1980) Mechanisms of resorption and deposition of calcium in the carapace of the crab Carcinus maenas. J Exp Biol 88:205–218Google Scholar
  187. Romer F (1971) Veränderungen des Integuments von Gryllus bimaculatus (Saltatoria) während des 1. Larvenstadiums. Z Naturforsch 266:1386–1388Google Scholar
  188. Romer F (1972) Untersuchungen zur Histologie, Histochemie, Feinstruktur und Funktion der Oenocyten bei Vertretern verschiedener Insektenordnungen. Habilitationsarbeit, Univ MainzGoogle Scholar
  189. Romer F, Gnatzy W (1981) Arachnid oenocytes: ecdysone synthesis in the legs of harvestmen (Opilionidae). Cell Tissue Res 216:449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Romer F, Emmerich H, Nowock J (1974) Biosynthesis of ecdysones in isolated prothoracic glands and oenocytes of Tenebrio molitor in vitro. J Insect Physiol 20:1975–1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Sanes JR, Hildebrand JG (1976) Origin and morphogenesis of sensory neurons in an insect antenna. Dev Biol 51:300–319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Schaller F, Charlet M (1980) Neuroendocrine control and rate of ecdysone biosynthesis in larvae of a paleopteran insect: Aeshna cyanea Müller. In: Hoffmann J (ed) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 99–110Google Scholar
  193. Scharrer B (1964) Histophysiological studies on the corpus allatum of Leucophaea maderae. IV Ultrastructure during normal activity cycle. Z Zeilforsch Mikrosk Anat 62:125–148Google Scholar
  194. Scheller K, Karlson P (1977) Synthesis of poly (A)-containing RNA induced by ecdysterone in fat body cells of Calliphora vicina. J Insect Physiol 23:435–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Schmidt K, Gnatzy W (1971) Die Feinstruktur der Sinneshaare auf den Cerci von Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria Gryllidae) II. Die Häutung der Faden-und Keulenhaare. Z Zellforsch 122:210–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Schweitzer ES, Sanes JR, Hildebrand JG (1976) Ontogeny of electroantenogram responses in the moth Manduca sexta. J Insect Physiol 22:955–960PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Sedlak BJ, Gilbert LI (1976a) Epidermal cell development during the pupal-adult metamorphosis of Hyalophora cecropia. Tissue Cell 8:637–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sedlak BJ, Gilbert LI (1976b) Effects of ecdysone and juvenile hormone on epidermal cell development in Hyalophora cecropia. Tissue Cell 8:649–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Sedlak BJ, Gilbert LI (1979) Correlation between epidermal cell structure and endogenous hormone titers during the fifth larval instar of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Tissue Cell 11:643–653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sehnal F (1976) Action of juvenoids on different groups of insects. In: Gilbert LI (ed) The juvenile hormones. Plenum Press, New York London, pp 301–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Selman K, Kafatos FC (1975) Differentation in the cocconase-producing silkmoth galea: ultra-structural studies. Dev Biol 46:132–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Shaaya E (1978) Ecdysone and juvenile hormone activity in the larvae of the cockroach Peripla-neta americana. Insect Biochem 8:193–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Shaaya E (1979) Synthesis of giant HnRNA in the epidermal cells of Calliphora and the role of the ring gland. Hoppe Seyler’s Z Physiol Chem 360:445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Shaaya E, Karlson P (1965a) Der Ecdysontiter während der Insektenentwicklung. II Die postembryonale Entwicklung der Schmeißfliege Calliphora erythrocephala Meig. J Insect Physiol 11:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Shaaya E, Karlson P (1965b) Der Ecdysontiter während der Insektenentwicklung. IV. Die Entwicklung der Lepidopteren Bombyx mori L und Cerura vinula L. Dev Biol 11:424–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Slifer EH, Prestage JJ, Beams HW (1959) The chemoreceptors and other sense organs on the antennal flagellum of the grasshopper (Orthoptera Acrididae). J Morphol 105:145–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Spindler KD, Keller R, O’Connor JD (1980) The role of ecdysteroids in the crustacean molting cycle. In: Hoffmann J (ed) Progress in ecdysone research. Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp 247–280Google Scholar
  208. Spindler-Barth M, Bassemir U, Kuppert P, Spindler KD (1981) Isolation of nuclei from crayfish tissues and demonstration of nuclear ecdysteroid receptors. Z Zellforsch 36c: 326–332Google Scholar
  209. Sreng L, Quennedey A (1976) Role of a temporary ciliary structure in the morphogenesis of insect glands. An electron microscope study of the tergal glands of male Blattella germanica L (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae). J Ultrastruct Res 56:78–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Steel CGH (1982) Stages of the intermoult cycle in the terrestrial isopod Oniscus asellus and their relation to biphasic cuticle secretion. Can J Zool 60:429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Stossberg M (1938) Die Zellvorgänge bei der Entwicklung der Flügelschuppen von Ephestia kühniella Z. Z Morphol Oekol Tiere 34:173–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Studinger G, Willig A (1975) Biosynthesis of α-and β-ecdysone in isolated abdomens of larvae of Musca domestica. J Insect Physiol 21:1793–1798PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Surholt B (1975) Studies in vivo and in vitro on chitin synthesis during the larval adult moulting cycle of the migratory Locus ta migratoria. J Comp Physiol 102:135–147Google Scholar
  214. Suzuki A, Nagasawa H, Kataoka H, Hori Y, Isogai A, Tamura S, Guo F, Zhong X, Ishizaki H, Fujishita M, Mizoguchi A (1982) Isolation and characterization of prothoracicotropic hormone from silkworm, Bombyx mori. Agric Biol Chem 46:1107–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Szopa TM, Happ GM (1982) Cytodifferentiation of the accessory glands of Tenebrio molitor. IX. Differentiation of the spermathecal accessory gland in vitro. Cell Tissue Res 222:269–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Thompson M J, Marks EP, Robbins WE, Dutky SR, Filipi PA, Finegold H (1978) Isolation and identification of the metabolites of 22,25-dideoxyecdysone from cockroach fat body cultures. Lipids 13:783–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Thurm U (1974) Basics of the generation of receptor potentials in epidermal mechanoreceptors of insects. In: Schwartzkopff J (ed) Mechanoreception. Abh Rheinisch Westfael Akad Wiss, Opladen, pp 355–385Google Scholar
  218. Travis DF (1965) The deposition of skeletal structures in the Crustaceans. The histomorpholo-gical and histochemical changes associated with the development and calcification of the branchial exoskeleton in the crayfish Orconectes virilis Hagas. Acta Histochem 20:193–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Truman JW, Taghert PH, Copenhaver PF, Tublitz NJ, Schwartz LM (1981) Eclosion hormone may control all ecdyses in insects. Nature 291:70–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Vigh DA, Dendinger JE (1982) Temporal relationships of postmolt deposition of calcium magnesium chitin and protein in the cuticle of the atlantic blue crab Callinectis sapidus Rathbun. Comp Biochem Physiol [A] 72:365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Vincent JFV, Hillerton JE (1979) The tanning of insect cuticle — a critical review and a revised mechanism. J Insect Physiol 25:653–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Vincent JFV (1981) Morphology and design of the extensible intersegmental membrane of the female migratory locust. Tissue Cell 13:831–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Welinder BS (1975) The crustacean cuticle. II. Deposition of organic and inorganic material in the cuticle of Astacus fluviatilis in the period after moulting. Comp Biochem Physiol 51B:409–416Google Scholar
  224. Wigglesworth VB (1933) The Physiology of the cuticle and of ecdysis in Rhodnius prolixus (Triatomidae Hemiptera) with special references to the function of oenocytes and of the dermal glands. Q J Microsc Sci 76:269–318Google Scholar
  225. Wigglesworth VB (1934) The physiology of ecdysis in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera). II Factors controlling moulting and’ metamorphosis’. Q J Microsc Sci 77:191–222Google Scholar
  226. Wigglesworth VB (1953) The origin of sensory neurones in an insect Rhodnius prolixus (Hemip-tera). Q J Microsc Sci 94:93–112Google Scholar
  227. Wigglesworth VB (1973) The significance of’ apolysis’ in the moulting of insects. J Entomol Ser A 47:141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Williams CM (1947) Physiology of insect diapause. II Interaction between the pupal brain and prothoracic glands in the giant silkworm Platysamia cecropia. Biol Bull 93:89–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Williams CM (1956) The juvenile hormone of insects. Nature 178:212–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Willig A, Keller R (1976) Biosynthesis of α-and β-ecdysone by the crayfish Orconectes limosus in vivo and by its Y-organs in vitro. Experientia 32:936–937PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Willig A, Rees HH, Goodwin TW (1971) Biosynthesis of insect moulting hormones in isolated ring glands and whole larvae of Calliphora. J Insect Physiol 17:2317–2326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Winget RR, Herman WS (1976) Occurrence of ecdysone in the blood of the chelicerate arthropod Limulus polyphemus. Experientia 32:1345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Wolfgang WJ, Riddiford LM (1981) Cuticular morphogenesis during continuous growth of the final instar larva of the moth. Tissue Cell 13:757–772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Zacharuk RY (1972) Fine structure of the cuticle epidermis and fat body of larval Elateride (Coleoptera) and changes associated with molting. Can J Zool 50:1463–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Zacharuk RY (1976) Structural changes of the cuticle associated with moulting. In: Hepburn MR (ed) The insect integument. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 299–321Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Gnatzy
    • 1
  • Franz Romer
    • 2
  1. 1.Zoologisches Institut der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-UniversitätFrankfurt am MainGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Zoologie der Johannes Gutenberg-UniversitätMainzGermany

Personalised recommendations