The Regulatory Issue

  • Karl W. Steininger
Part of the Contributions to Economics book series (CE)


Out of the two areas of interlinking regulation, the one far further developed is obviously trade regulation. It is therefore also the most used point of departure for discussing the interlinkage. In this section we will look into the three main sources of trade regulation relevant for a European country, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the OECD Guiding Principles and European Community law, and their respective (potential) environmental coverage.


Regulatory Issue Dispute Settlement Uruguay Round International Environmental Agreement National Environmental Policy 
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  1. 7.
    see e.g. Bown (1990), Arden-Clarke (1991), Shrybman (1991), Verbruggen ( 1991 ), U.S. Congress (1992).Google Scholar
  2. 8.
    Uruguay Round Final Act, Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, Article 8.2(c); GATT TNC (1994a), p. 239.Google Scholar
  3. 13.
    Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, Article 2.1; GATT TNC (1994a), p. 70. Also the Sanitary and Phytosanitary AgreementGoogle Scholar
  4. 15.
    Verbruggen (1991), p. 689. Compare also a detailed list of difficulties in U.S. Congress (1992), p. 32 and pp. 59ff.Google Scholar
  5. 17.
    GATT Document L/7402, 2 February 1994Google Scholar
  6. 18.
    Reiterer (1994) p. 10, footnote 9.Google Scholar
  7. 19.
    The GATT Panel citing an explanation of “equivalent” by GATT as the levying of charges equivalent to an internal tax imposed on a like domestic product is granted in Article II.Google Scholar
  8. 20.
    Compare similarly Subramanian (1992), p. 143; and Sorsa (1992), p. 121.Google Scholar
  9. 26.
    The overview is based on OECD Secretariat Notes for the Joint Sessions of Trade and Environment Experts, the first session held October 1, 1991; and U.S. Congress (1992), p. 26; in the German literature they are surveyed for example by PetersmannGoogle Scholar
  10. 50.
    Uimonen and Whalley (1991), abstract; see also pp. 58–60.Google Scholar
  11. 64.
    Wackernagel and Rees (1992b), p. 11, with a citation of R. Overby, 1985, The Urban Economic Challenge: Improvement of Human Welfare by Building and Managing Urban Ecosystems, mimeo, Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Physica-Verlag Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karl W. Steininger
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of GrazGrazAustria

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