Applied Simulated Annealing pp 17-44 | Cite as

# Problem Independent Distributed Simulated Annealing and its Applications

## Abstract

Simulated annealing has proven to be a good technique for solving hard combinatorial optimization problems. Some attempts at speeding up annealing algorithms have been based on shared memory multiprocessor systems. Also parallelizations for certain problems on distributed memory multiprocessor systems are known.

In this paper, we present a problem independent general purpose parallel implementation of simulated annealing on large distributed memory message-passing multiprocessor systems. The sequential algorithm is studied and we give a classification of combinatorial optimization problems together with their neighborhood structures. Several parallelization approaches are examined considering their suitability for problems of the various classes. For typical representatives of the different classes good parallel simulated annealing implementations are presented.

We describe in detail several ’tricks’ increasing efficiency and attained solution quality of the different parallel implementations. Extensive measurements of efficiency, solution quality and other parameters of the algorithms are presented on different numbers of processors. These measurements show, that our algorithms scale up to more that 120 processors. Some applications are described in detail, showing the practical relevance of our work. All algorithms are implemented in OCCAM-2 on a free configurable transputer system.

## Keywords

combinatorial optimization simulated annealing parallel processing distributed memory transputer travelling salesman partitioning link assignment network construction## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- [1]E. Aarts, F. de Bont, E. Haberts, P. van Laarhoven:
*Parallel Implementations of the Statistical Cooling Algorithm*. North-Holland INTEGRATION, the VLSI journal 4 (1986), pp. 209–238Google Scholar - [2]E. Aarts, J. Korst:
*Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines*. John Wiley & Sons, 1989Google Scholar - [3]J.R.A. Allwright, D.B. Carpenter:
*A distributed implementation of simulated annealing for the travelling salesman problem*. Parallel Computing 10 (1989), pp. 335–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [4]F. Baiardi, S. Orlando:
*Startegies for a Massively Parallel Implementation of Simulated Annealing*. Parallel architectures and languages, PARLE ‘89, pp. 273–287Google Scholar - [5]P. Banerjee, M. Jones, J. Sargent:
*Parallel Simulated Annealing Algorithms for Cell Placement on Hypercube Multiprocessors*. IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Vol. 1, No. 1, Jan 1990, pp. 91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [6]A. Casotto, F. Romeo, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli:
*A Parallel Simulated Annealing Algorithm for the Placement of Macro-Cells*. IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design, Vol. CAD-6, No. 5, Sep 1987, pp. 838–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [7]F. Darema, S. Kirkpatrick, V.A. Norton:
*Parallel algorithms for chip placement by simulated annealing*. IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol 31, May 1987, pp. 391–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [8]R. Diekmann, J. Simon: Verteilte Implementierung von Simulated Annealing Master Thesis, Dept. of Math. and Computer Science, University of Paderborn, 1991 (in German)Google Scholar
- [9]M.D. Durand: Parallel Simulated Annealing:
*Accuracy vs. Speed in Placement*. IEEE Design & Test of Computers, June 1989, pp. 8–34Google Scholar - [10]R. Funke, R. Luling, B. Monien, F. Lucking, H. Blanke-Bohne:
*An optimized reconfigurable architecture for Transputer networks*. 25th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 1992, Vol. I, pp. 237–245Google Scholar - [11]M.D. Huang, F. Romeo, A. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli:
*An Efficient General Cooling Schedule for Simulated Annealing*. IEEE International Conference on Computer Aided Design 1989, pp. 381–384Google Scholar - [12]S. Kirkpatrick, C.D. Gelatt, M.P. Vecchi:
*Optimization by Simulated Annealing*. Science, Vol. 220, No. 4598, May 1983, pp. 671–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [13]P.J.M. van Laarhoven:
*Theoretical and computational aspects of simulated annealing*. CWI Tract, Netherlands, 1988Google Scholar - [14]R. Otten, L. van Ginneken:
*The Annealing Algorithm*. Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989Google Scholar - [15]O.E. Percus, M.H. Kalos:
*Random Number Generators for MIMD Parallel Processors*. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 6, 1989, pp. 477–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [16]G. Reinelt:
*TSPLIB - A Traveling Salesman Problem Library*. DfG Report No. 250, 1990Google Scholar - [17]D. Smitley, I. Lee:
*Synthesizing Minimum Total Expansion Topologies for Reconfigurable Interconnection Networks*. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing 7, 1989, pp. 178–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar - [18]B. Virot:
*Parallelization of the Simulated Annealing Algorithm: Application to the Placement Problem*. Technical report, University of Orleans, 1990Google Scholar