Cosmic Ray Produced Radioactivity on the Earth

  • D. Lal
  • B. Peters
Part of the Handbuch der Physik / Encyclopedia of Physics book series (HDBPHYS, volume 9 / 46 / 2)


Matter which is exposed to cosmic radiation undergoes characteristic changes in its chemical and isotopic composition. Such irradiated material can be found in many places on earth and belongs to either of two categories:

terrestrial matter bombarded by cosmic ray particles incident on the earth, and extraterrestrial matter bombarded in outer space and subsequently accreted by the earth.


Solar Cycle Sunspot Number Source Function Star Production Cosmic Radiation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [A1]
    Anand, J. S., and D. Lal: Nature, Lond. 201, 775 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [A2]
    Anders, E.: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 19, 53 (1960).Google Scholar
  3. [A3]
    Arnold, J. R.: Ann. Rev. Nuclear Sci. 11, 349 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [A4]
    Arnold, J. R., M. Honda, and D. Lal: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3519 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [A5]
    Arnold, J. R.: Science 124, 584 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [A6]
    Arnold, J. R., and H. A. Al-Salih: Science 121, 451 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [A7]
    Arnold, J. R., and E. C. Anderson: Tellus 9, 28 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [A8]
    Apparao, M. V. K., and S. Ramadurai: On the Relative Characteristics of Proton and Helium Nuclei in Primary Cosmic Radiation. Preprint (1964).Google Scholar
  9. [A9]
    Anders, E.: Meteorite Ages. The Moon, Meteorites and Comets, ed. by Middle-Hurst and Kuiper, p. 402. Chicago: Chicago University Press 1963.Google Scholar
  10. [A10]
    Adams, J. S.: Radioactivity of the Lithosphere. Nuclear Radiation in Geophysics, ed. Israel and Krebs, pp. 1–17. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1962.Google Scholar
  11. [A11]
    Alexander, W. M., C. W. Mccracken, L. Secretan, and O. E. Berg: Space Research, Vol. III, p. 891. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1963Google Scholar
  12. [A12]
    Arrhenius, G., G. Kjellberg, and W. F. Libby: Tellus 3, 222 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [B1]
    Brown, W. W.: Phys. Rev. 93, 528 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [B2]
    Bullock, F. W.: Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 70, 134 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [B3]
    Bryant, D. A., T. L. Cline, U. D. Desai, and F. B. Mcdonald: J. Geophys. Res. 67, 4983 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [B4]
    Bieri, R., M. Koide, and E. D. Goldberg: Preprint (1964).Google Scholar
  17. [B5]
    Broecker, W. S.: Mixing Phenomena Within the Atmosphere and Oceans as Determined from Radiocarbon Data. Lamont Geological Observatory Report (1961).Google Scholar
  18. [B6]
    Bhandari, N., S. G. Beat, D. P. Kharkar, S. Krishna Swamy, D. Lal, and A. S. Tamhane: Tellus 18, 504 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [B7]
    Bhandari, N., and Rama: J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1959 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [B8]
    Begemann, F.: Z. Naturforsch. 14a, 334 (1959).ADSGoogle Scholar
  21. [B9]
    Begemann, F.: Chimia 16, 1 (1961).Google Scholar
  22. [B10]
    Bien, G. S., N. W. Rakestraw, and H. E. Suess: Tellus 12, 436 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [B11]
    Bien, G. S., N. W. Rakestraw, and H. E. Suess: Radioactive Dating. (Proc. of Athens Symposium, 19–23, Nov. 1962.) Internat. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (1963), p. 159.Google Scholar
  24. [B12]
    Byers, H. R.: The Earth as a Planet, ed. by G. P. Kuiper. Chicago, Chicago University Press 1954.Google Scholar
  25. [B13]
    Broecker, W. S., R. D. Gerard, M. Ewing, and B. C. Heezen: J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2903 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [B14]
    Biswas, S., and C. E. Fichtel: Astrophys. Jour. 139 (3), 941 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [B15]
    Biswas, S.: The Composition of Solar Particle Radiation. Proc. of the Internat. Conference on Cosmic Rays (Jaipur, Dec. 1963) 1, 43 (1964).Google Scholar
  28. [B16]
    Bailey, L. E.: Angle and Energy Distribution of Charged Particles from the High Energy Nuclear Bombardment of Various Elements. (Thesis) UCRL-3334 (1956).Google Scholar
  29. [B17]
    Bolin, B.: Proc. Sec. Int. Conf. Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy 18, 336 (1958).Google Scholar
  30. [B18]
    Bolin, B., and E. Eriksson: Rosby Memorial Volume, pp. 130–142. New York: Rockefeller Inst. Press 1959.Google Scholar
  31. [B19]
    Begemann, F., and W. F. Libby: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 12, 277 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [B20]
    Bhandari, N., D. Lal and Rama: Tellus 18, 391 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [B21]
    Begemann, F.: The Tritium Content of Atmospheric Hydrogen and Methane. In: Earth Science and Meteorites, ed. J. Geiss and E. D. Goldberg, p. 169. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1963Google Scholar
  34. [B22]
    Broecker, W. S., K. K. Turekian, and B. C. Heezen: Amer. J. Sci. 256, 503 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [B23]
    Bjornerstedt, R., and K. Edvarson: Ann. Rev. Nuclear Sci. 13, 505 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [B24]
    Balasubramahniyan, V. K., and F. B. Mvicdonald: J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3289 (1964)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [Cl]
    Craig, H., and D. Lal: Tellus 13 (1), 85 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [C2]
    Currie, L. A.: Phys. Rev. 114, 878 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [C3]
    Craig, H.: The Natural Distribution of Radiocarbon. In: Earth Science and Meteorites, ed. by Geiss and Goldberg, p. 103. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1963.Google Scholar
  40. [C4]
    Cumming, J. B.: Ann. Rev. Nuclear Sci. 13, 261 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [C5]
    Craig, H.: Tellus 9, 1 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [C6]
    Craig, H.: Phys. Rev. 105, 1125 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [C7]
    Chagnon, C. W.: Editor: Joint Indo-United States Balloon Flight Program 1961. AFCRL-62–1135 (1962).Google Scholar
  44. [D1]
    Dervinsky, P. J., J. T. Wasson, E. C. Couble, and N. A. Diamond: J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1457 (1964.)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [D2]
    Davis, R., and O. A. Schaeffer: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 62, 105 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [D3]
    Vries, HL. DE: Research in Geochemistry, ed. by P. H. Abelson. New York: Wiley Inc. 1959.Google Scholar
  47. [D 4]
    Damon, P. E., and Austin Long: Carbon-14, Carbon Dioxide and Climate. Preprint (1963).Google Scholar
  48. [D 5]
    Dorman, L. I.: Cosmic Ray Variations. Moscow: State Publishing House for Technical and Theoretical Literature 1957.Google Scholar
  49. [D6]
    Damgaard, G., and K. Hansen: Reported at the Sienna Conference on Elementary Particles 1963.Google Scholar
  50. [D7]
    Drevinsky, P. J., E. A. Martell, and D. Lal: Joint Indo-United States Balloon Flight Program 1961. AFCRL-62–1135 (Dec. 1962).Google Scholar
  51. [F1]
    Faltings, V., and P. Harteck: Z. Naturforsch. 5a, 439 (1950).ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [F2]
    Feely, H. W., B. Davidson, J. P. Friend, R. J. Lagomarsino, and M. W. M. Loe: Project Star Dust. DASA 1309. New Jersey: Isotopes Inc. 1963.Google Scholar
  53. [F3]
    Fuller, M. O.: Disintegration of Oxygen by 300 MeV Neutrons. (Thesis) UCRL-2699 (1954).Google Scholar
  54. [F4]
    Fergusson, G. J.: Natural and Artificial Radiocarbon in the Atmosphere and Oceans. Preprint (1963).Google Scholar
  55. [F5]
    Fergusson, G. J.: Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 243, 561 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [F6]
    Freier, P. S., and W. R. Webber: J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1605 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [F7]
    Friend, J. P., H. W. Feely, P. W. Krey, J. Spar, and A. Walton: High Altitude Sampling program. DASA 1300, Vol. 1 (1961).Google Scholar
  58. [F8]
    Fergusson, G. J.: J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3933 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [G1]
    Goldberg, E. D., and G. O. S. Arrhenius: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 13, 153 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [G2]
    Goldberg, E. D.: Amer. Rev. Phys. Chem. 12, 29 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [G3]
    Geiss, J., H. Oeschger, and U. Schwarz: Space Sci. Rev. 1, 197 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [G4]
    Goel, P. S., D. P. Kharkar, D. LAL, N. Narsappaya, B. Peters, and V. Yatirajam: Deep Sea Res. 4, 202 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [G5]
    Goel, P. S.: Nature, Lond. 178, 1458 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [G6]
    Goel, P. S., N. Narsappaya, C. Prabhakara, T. Rama, and P. K. Zutshi: Tellus 11, 91 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [G7]
    Goel, P. S., and M. Honda: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  66. [G8]
    George, E. P.: Observations of Cosmic Rays Underground and their Interpretation. Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics, Vol. 1, p. 395. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1952.Google Scholar
  67. [G9]
    Goel, P. S., and T. P. Kohman: Radioactive Dating. (Proceedings of the Athens Symposium, 19–23 Nov. 1962.) Internat. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1963, p. 413. Handbuch der Physik, Bd. XLVI/2. 39Google Scholar
  68. [G10]
    Goebel, K., H. Schultes, and J. Zähringer: Production Cross Sections of Tritium and Rare Gases in Various Target Elements. CERN report, 64–12 (1964).Google Scholar
  69. [G11]
    Gerard, R., and M. Ewing: Deep Sea Res. 8, 298 (1961).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [H1]
    Hess, W. N., H. W. Patterson, R. Wallace, and E. L. Chupp: Phys. Rev. 116, 445 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [H2]
    Honda, M., and D. Lal: Nuclear Phys. 51, 363 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [H3]
    Houtermans, F. G., Rama, H, Oeschger, and S. Aegerter: A Search for Cosmic Ray Produced Kr81 in the Atmosphere. Preprint (1964).Google Scholar
  73. [H4]
    Honda, M., and D. Lal: Phys. Rev. 118, 1618 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [H5]
    Honda, M., and J. R. Arnold: Science 143, 203 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [H6]
    Hawkins, G. S.: Ann. Rev. Astronom. Astrophys. 2, 149 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [H7]
    Hagemann, F., J. G. Ray jr., L. Machta, and A. Turkevich: Science 130, 542 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [I1]
    Israel, H., and Krebs, editors: Nuclear Radiation in Geophysics. Berlin-GöttingenHeidelberg: Springer 1962.Google Scholar
  78. [J1]
    Junge, C. E.: Air Chemistry and Radioactivity. New York and London: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  79. [J2]
    Junge, C. E., O. Oldenberg, and J. T. Wasson: J. Geophys. Res. 67, 1027 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [K1]
    Kharkar, D. P., D. LAL, and B. L. K. Somayajulu: Radioactive Dating. (Proceedings of the Athens Symposium, 19–23, Nov. 1962.) Internat. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna 1963, p. 175.Google Scholar
  81. [K2]
    Kouts, H., and L. Yuan: Phys. Rev. 86, 128 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [K3]
    Kharkar, D. P., B. S. Amin, and D. Lal: Deep Sea Research 13 (in press) (1966).Google Scholar
  83. [K4]
    Koenigswald, G. H. R. v.: Space Sci. Rev. 3 (3), 433 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [K5]
    Kellogg, D. A.: Phys. Rev. 90, 224 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [K6]
    Kulp, G. L., and M. L. Volchok: Phys. Rev. 90, 713 (1953).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [K7]
    Kharkar, D. P., V. N. Nijampurkar, and D. Lal: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 30, 621 (1966).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [K8]
    Kullenburg, B.: Deep Sea Coring. Reports of the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition (1947/48), ed. by H. Petterson, Vol. IV, p. 37.Google Scholar
  88. [K9]
    Kaufman, S., and W. F. Libby: Phys. Res. 93, 1337 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [L0]
    Lal, D., and B. Peters: Cosmic Ray Produced Isotopes and their Application to problems in Geophysics. Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics and Elementary Particle Physics, Vol. 6, p. 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publ. Co. 1962.Google Scholar
  90. [L1]
    Langway, C. C. jr., H. Oeschger, A. Renaud, and B. Alder: Sampling Polar Ice for Radiocarbon Dating. Preprint (Oct. 1964).Google Scholar
  91. [L2]
    Lal, D., J. R. Arnold, and M. Honda: Phys. Rev. 118, 1626 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [L3]
    Lal, D., P. K. Malhotra, and B. Peters: J. Atmosph. Terr. Phys. 12, 306 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [L4]
    Lord, J. J.: Phys. Rev. 81, 901 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [L5]
    Lingenfelter, R. E., and E. J. Flamm: Science 144, 292 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [L6]
    Lal, D., G. Rajagopalan, and V. S. Venkatavardan: Proceedings of the Internat. Conference on Cosmic Rays (Jaipur, Dec. 1963) 1, 99 (1964).Google Scholar
  96. [L7]
    Lal, D.: On the Investigations of Geophysical Processes Using Cosmic Ray Produced Radioactivity. In: Earth Science and Meteoritics, compiled by J. Geiss and E. D. Goldberg, p. 115. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1963.Google Scholar
  97. [L8]
    Lal, D.: Proceedings of the Internat. Conference on Cosmic Rays (Jaipur, Dec. 1963) 6, XX (1964).Google Scholar
  98. [L9]
    Lal, D., J. R. Arnold, and B. L. K. Somayajulu: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 28, 1111 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [L10]
    Lingenfelter, R. E.: Rev. Geophys. 1, 35 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [L11]
    Lal, D., and D. R. Schink: Rev. Sci. Instrum. 31, 395 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [L12]
    Lal, D., N. Narsappaya, and P. K. Zutshi: Nuclear Phys. 3, 69 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [L13]
    Lal, D.: Investigations of Nuclear Interactions Produced by Cosmic Rays. Thesis, Bombay University (1958).Google Scholar
  103. [L14]
    Lal, D., E. D. Goldberg, and M. Koide: Science 131, 332 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [L15]
    Lal, D., Rama, and P. K. Zutshi: J. Geophys. Res. 65, 669 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [L16]
    Libby, W. F.: Radiocarbon Dating. Chicago: Chicago University Press 1952; 2nd. ed. 1959.Google Scholar
  106. [L17]
    Lohrmann, E., and E. Schopper: Nucleonen in der Atmosphäre. Handbuch der Physik, 1965.Google Scholar
  107. [L18]
    Libby, W. F.: Science 140, 278 (1963); also Antiquity 37 (147), 213 (1963).Google Scholar
  108. [L19]
    Lingenfelter, R. E., and E. J. Flamm: J. Atmosph. Sci. 21 (2), 134 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [L20]
    Flamm, E., R. E. Lingenfelter, G. J. F. Macdonald, and W. F. Libby: Science 138, 49 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. [L21]
    Lal, D.: J. Oceanogr. Soc. Japan, 20th Anniversary Volume, 600 (1962).Google Scholar
  111. [L22]
    Lindenbaum, S. J., and R. M. Sternheimer: Phys. Rev. 105, 1874 (1957); 123, 333 (1961).Google Scholar
  112. [M1]
    Meyer, P., and R. Vogt: Phys. Rev. 129, 2275 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [M2]
    Martell, E. A.: Science 129, 1197 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. [M3]
    Mcdonald, F. B.: Phys. Rev. 116, 462 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [M4]
    Merill, J. R., M. Honda, and J. R. Arnold: Analyt. Chem. 32, 1420 (1960).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [M5]
    Mcdonald, F. B., and W. R. Webber: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, (Suppl. A.II), 428 (1962).Google Scholar
  117. [M6]
    Miyake, S., K. Hinotani, and K. Nunogani: J. Phys. Soc. Japan 12 (2), 113 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. [M7]
    Mylroi, M. G., and J. G. Wilson: Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 64, 404 (1951).ADSGoogle Scholar
  119. [M8]
    Marquez, L., and N. L. Costa: Nuovo Cim. 2, 1038 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. [M9]
    Marquez, L., N. L. Costa and I. G. Almeida: Nuovo Cim. 6, 1292 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. [M10]
    Machta, L., and R. J. List: Open Hearings of the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy on “Fall-Out from Nuclear Weapons Test”, May 5–8 (1959). Washington; see also: Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 6, p. 273. New York: Academic Press 1959.Google Scholar
  122. [M11]
    Macnamara, J., and H. G. Thode: Phys. Rev. 80, 296 (1950).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. [M12]
    Morrison, P., and J. Pine: Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 62, 69 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. [N1]
    Nilsson, R., I. Olsson, A. Berggren, and K. Siegbahn: Ark. Geophys. 3, 111 (1959).Google Scholar
  125. [O1]
    Oeschger, H.: Low Level Counting Methods. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioactive Dating, held at Athens (19–23 Nov. 1962), publ. by I.A.E.A. Vienna, 13 (1963).Google Scholar
  126. [P1]
    Peters, B.: Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 41, 67 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. [P2]
    Peters, B., J. Atmosph:. Terr. Phys. 13, 351 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. [P3]
    Peters, B.: Cosmic Rays. Handbook of Physics, ed. by CONDON and ODISHAW, Chap. 12, pp. 201–244. McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1958.Google Scholar
  129. [P4]
    Peters, B.: Some Problems Connected with the Chemical Composition of Galactic Cosmic Radiation. Semaine d’Étude sur le Problème du Rayonnement Cosmique dans l’Espace Interplanetaire (Pontificae Academiae Scientiarum Scripta Varia), p. 1 (1963).Google Scholar
  130. [P5]
    Pal, Y., and B. Peters: Kgl. danske Vidensk. Selsk., Mat.-Fys. Medd. 33, No. 15 (1964).Google Scholar
  131. [P6]
    Peters, B.: Nature, Flux and Energy Distribution of Cosmic Ray Particles in Interplanetary Space. Semaine d’Étude sur le Problème du Rayonnement Cosmique dans l’Espace Interplanetaire (Pontifica Academia Scientiarum Scripta Varia), p. 532 (1963).Google Scholar
  132. [P7]
    Peters, B.: Z. Physik 148, 93 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. [P8]
    Puppi, G.: The Energy Balance of Cosmic Radiation. Progress in Cosmic Ray Physics, Vol. 3, p. 341. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1956.Google Scholar
  134. [Q1]
    Quenby, J.: Time Variations of Cosmic Rays. Handbuch der Physik (this volume).Google Scholar
  135. [R1]
    Rossi, B.: High Energy Particles. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewad Cliffs 1956.Google Scholar
  136. [R2]
    Ray, E. C.: Experimental Results of Flights in the Stratosphere. Handbuch der Physik, Bd. XLVI/1,pp, 130–156. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer 1961.Google Scholar
  137. [R3]
    Rudstam, G.: Phil. Mag. 46, 344 (1955).Google Scholar
  138. [R4]
    M. Honda: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3227 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. [R5]
    R. Rama, and M. Honda: J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3533 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. [R6]
    R. Rama: Bull. Nat. Geophys. Res. Inst. 1 (4), 241 (1963).Google Scholar
  141. [R7]
    Renaud, A., E. Schumacher, B. Hughes, H. Oeschger, and C. Muhlemann: J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3783 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  142. [R8]
    Reynolds, J. H.: Phys. Rev. 79, 886 (1950).ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. [R9]
    Rodel, W.: Nature, Lond. 200, 999 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. [R10]
    Revelle, R., and H. E. Suess: Gases. The Sea, ed. by M. N. Hill, p. 313. New York: Interscience Publ. 1962.Google Scholar
  145. [R11]
    Rosholt, J. N., C. Emibiani, J. Geiss, F. F. Koczy, and P. J. Wangersky: J. Ged. 69, 162 (1961).Google Scholar
  146. [R12]
    Rama: Unpublished calculations.Google Scholar
  147. [R13]
    Revelle, R., and H. E. Suess: Tellus 9, 18 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. [R14]
    Rankama, K.: Isotope Geology. London: Pergamon Press 1954.Google Scholar
  149. [R15]
    R. Rama: J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3861 (1963).ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. [S1]
    Scholander, P. F., H. DE Vries, W. Dansgaard, L. K. Coachman, D. C. Nutt, and E. Hemmingsen: Meddelelser om Gronland 165, (Nr. 1), 26 (1962).Google Scholar
  151. [S2]
    Staker, W. P., M. Pavalow, and S. A. Korff: Phys. Rev. 81, 889 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. [S3]
    Soberman, R. K.: Phys. Rev. 102, 1399 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. [S4]
    Simpson, J. A., H. W. Baldwin, and R. B. Uretz: Phys. Rev. 84, 332 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. [S5]
    Simpson, J. A.: Phys. Rev. 83, 1175 (1951).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. [S6]
    Stone, E. C.: J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3939 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. [S7]
    Schaeffer, O. A., and J. Zähringer: Phys. Rev. Letters 8, 389 (1962)Google Scholar
  157. [S8]
    Suess, H. E.: Secular Changes in the Concentration of Atmospheric Radiocarbon. Problems related to interplanetary matter. NAS-NRC, Publ. 845 (1961).Google Scholar
  158. [S9]
    Simpson, J. A.: Semaine d’Etude sur le Problème du rayonnement cosmique dans l’espace interplanetaire (Pontificale Academiale Scientiarum Scripta Varia), p. 323 (1963).Google Scholar
  159. [S10]
    Simpson, J. A.: Astrophys. J., Suppl. 4, 378 (1960).Google Scholar
  160. [S11]
    Schove, D. J.: J. Geophys. Res. 60, 127 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. [S12]
    Svedrup, H. U., M. W. Johnson, and R. M. Fleming: The Oceans, Their Physics, Chemistry and General Biology. New York: Prentice Hall 1942.Google Scholar
  162. [S13]
    Schink, D., and M. Anderson: J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3596 (1962).Google Scholar
  163. [T1]
    Tilles, D., J. DE Felice, and E. L. Fireman: ICARUS, 2 (3), 258 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. [V1]
    Viste, E., and E. Anders: J. Geophys. Res. 67, 2913 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. [V2]
    Voshage, H., and H. Hintenberger: Radioactive Dating (Proceedings of the Athens Symposium, 19–23 Nov. 1962). International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, p. 367 (1963).Google Scholar
  166. [V3]
    Voshage, H.: Z. Naturforsch. 17a, 422 (1962).ADSGoogle Scholar
  167. [V4]
    Vogt, R.: Phys. Rev. 125, 366 (1962)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Meyer, P., and R. Vogt: Phys. Rev. 129, 2275 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. [WI]
    Winsberg, L.: Phys. Rev. 95, 205 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. [W2]
    Winsberg, L.: Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 9, 183 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. [W3]
    Wasson, J. T.: ICARUS 2, 54 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. [W4]
    Watt, D. E., and D. Ramsden: High Sensitivity Counting Techniques (International Series of Monographs on Electronics and Instrumentation), Vol. 20. Oxford: Perga-mon Press 1964.Google Scholar
  173. [W5]
    Waddington, C. J.: Progr. Nuclear Phys. 8, 3 (1960).Google Scholar
  174. [W6]
    Waddington, C. J.: The primary Cosmic Radiation. Proc. Int. School of Phys. “Enrico Fermi”, Course XIX (Como, 23 May-3 June 1961), p. 135. New York: Academic Press 1963.Google Scholar
  175. [W7]
    Webber, W. R.: Time Variations of Low Rigidity Cosmic Rays during the Recent Sunspot Cycle. Progr. Cosmic. Ray Physics and Elem. Part. Phys. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 6, 77 (1962).Google Scholar
  176. [W8]
    Webber, W. R.: An Evaluation of the Radiation Hazard due to Solar Particle Events. Report D 2–90469, Boeing Company, Seattle, Dec. 1963; also P. Freier and W. R. Webber, Science 142, 1587 (1963).Google Scholar
  177. [W9]
    Wool, L., and W. F. Libby: Geophysical Implications of Radiocarbon Date Discrepancies. Isotopic and Cosmic Chemistry, p. 205. Amsterdam: North Holland Publ. Co. 1964.Google Scholar
  178. [W10]
    Wood, R., D. Lundgren, S. Rohrbough, W. Torgeson, J. Borth, J. Upton, P. Stroom, S. Jones, and I. Hall: General Mills Report No. 2328 (1962).Google Scholar
  179. [Z1]
    Zutshi, P. K.: Nucleonics 21, 50 (1962).Google Scholar
  180. [Z2]
    Zenmevich, L. A.: Deep Sea Res. 4 (1), 67 (1956).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag / Berlin · Heidelberg 1967

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Lal
  • B. Peters

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations