Advertisement

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Psychosis

  • Elaine C. M. HunterEmail author
  • Louise C. Johns
  • Juliana Onwumere
  • Emmanuelle Peters
Chapter

Abstract

Cognitive Behaviorual Therapy for Psychosis (CBTp) is recommended by UK and USA schizophrenia treatment guidelines for those who have distressing positive symptoms or are experiencing secondary emotional problems. This chapter will highlight the current evidence for CBTp, give an overview of its key clinical components and describe some new initiatives in the development of CBTp.

Keywords

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Psychotic Symptom Attributional Style Delusional Belief Metacognitive Belief 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Allott K, Alvarez-Jimenez M, Killackey EJ, Bendall S, Mcgorry PD, Jackson HJ (2011) Patient predictors of symptom and functional outcome following cognitive behaviour therapy or befriending in first-episode psychosis. Schizophr Res 132(2–3):125–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bach P, Hayes SC (2002) The use of acceptance and commitment therapy to prevent the rehospitalization of psychotic patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 70(5):1129–1139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Tarrier N, Lewis SW, Moring J, O’Brien R, Schofield N, McGovern J (2001) Randomized controlled trial of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavior therapy, and family intervention for patients with comorbid schizophrenia and substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry 158(10):1706–1713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrowclough C, Haddock G, Lobban F, Jones S, Siddle R, Roberts C, Gregg L (2006) Group cognitive-behavioural therapy for schizophrenia - Randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 189:527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bateman K, Hansen L, Turkington D, Kingdon D (2007) Cognitive behavioral therapy reduces suicidal ideation in schizophrenia: results from a randomized controlled trial. Suicide Life-Threat Behav 37(3):284–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck AT (1952) Successful out-patient psychotherapy of a chronic schizophrenic with a delusion based on borrowed guilt. Psychiatry 15(3):205–212Google Scholar
  7. Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G (1979) Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck AT, Rector NA, Stolar N, Grant P (2009) Schizophrenia: cognitive theory, research, and therapy. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett-Levy J, Butler G, Fennell M, Hackmann A, Mueller M, Westbrook D (eds) (2004) Oxford guide to behavioural experiments in cognitive therapy. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  10. Bentall RP, Lewis S, Tarrier N, Haddock G, Drake R, Day J (2003) Relationships matter: the impact of the therapeutic alliance on outcome in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 60(1):319Google Scholar
  11. Bentall RP, Fernyhough C, Morrison AP, Lewis S, Corcoran R (2007) Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. Br J Clin Psychol 46:155–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Birchwood M (2003) Pathways to emotional dysfunction in first-episode psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 182:373–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Birchwood M, Chadwick P (1997) The omnipotence of voices: testing the validity of a cognitive model. Psychol Med 27(6):1345–1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Birchwood M, Trower P (2006) The future of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis: not a quasi-neuroleptic. Br J Psychiatry 188:107–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Birchwood M, Meaden A, Trower P, Gilbert P, Plaistow J (2000a) The power and omnipotence of voices: subordination and entrapment by voices and significant others. Psychol Med 30(2):337–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Birchwood M, Spencer E, McGovern D (2000b) Schizophrenia: early warning signs. Adv Psychiatr Treat 6:93–101Google Scholar
  17. Birchwood M, Gilbert P, Gilbert J, Trower P, Meaden A, Hay J, Murray E, Miles JNV (2004) Interpersonal and role-related schema influence the relationship with the dominant ‘voice’ in schizophrenia: a comparison of three models. Psychol Med 34:1571–1580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Birchwood M, Peters E, Tarrier N, Dunn G, Lewis S, Wykes T, Davies L, Lester H, Michail M (2011) MRC COMMAND: a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of cognitive therapy to prevent harmful compliance with command hallucinations. BMC Psychiatry 11:155PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brabban A, Tai S, Turkington D (2009) Predictors of outcome in brief cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 35(5):859–864PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Braehler C, Gumley A, Harper J, Wallace S, Norrie J, Gilbert P (2012) Exploring change processes in compassion focused therapy in psychosis: results of a feasibility randomized controlled trial. Br J Clin Psychol 52:199–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brahan LG, Trower P, Birchwood M (2004) Acting on command hallucinations and dangerous behavior: a critique of the major findings in the last decade. Clin Psychol Rev 24(5):513–528Google Scholar
  22. Byrne S, Birchwood M, Trower PE, Meaden A (2006) A casebook of cognitive behaviour therapy for command hallucinations: a social rank theory approach. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Cather C, Penn D, Otto MW, Yovel I, Mueser KT, Goff DC (2005) A pilot study of functional cognitive behavioral therapy (Fcbt) For Schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 74(2–3):201–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chadwick P (2006) Person-based cognitive therapy for distressing psychosis, Wiley series in clinical psychology. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Chadwick P, Birchwood M (1994) The omnipotence of voices - a cognitive approach to auditory hallucinations. Br J Psychiatry 164:190–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chadwick P, Birchwood M, Trower P (1996) Cognitive therapy for delusions, voices and paranoia. Wiley, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Chadwick P, Williams C, Mackenzie J (2003) Impact of case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. Behav Res Ther 41(6):671–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chadwick P, Hughes S, Russell D (2009) Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia: a replication and randomized feasibility trial. Behav Cogn Psychother 37(4):403–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Connell J, Barkham M (2007) CORE-10 User manual, Version 1.1. CORE System Trust & CORE Information Management Systems LtdGoogle Scholar
  30. de Bont PAMJ, van den Berg DPG, van der Vleugel BM, de Roos C, Mulder CL, Becker ES, de Jongh A, van der Gaag, van Minnen A (2013) A multi-site single blind clinical study to compare the effects of prolonged exposure, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and waiting list on patients with a current diagnosis of psychosis and co morbid post-traumatic-stress-disorder: study protocol for the randomized controlled trial treating trauma in psychosis. Trial 14:151Google Scholar
  31. Drury V, Birchwood M, Cochrane R, Macmillan F (1996) Cognitive therapy and recovery from acute psychosis: a controlled trial.1. Impact on psychotic symptoms. Br J Psychiatry 169(5):593–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Drury V, Birchwood M, Cochrane R (2000) Cognitive therapy and recovery from acute psychosis: a controlled trial 3. Five-year follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 177:8–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dunn G, Fowler D, Rollinson R, Freeman D, Kuipers E, Smith B, Steel C, Onwumere J, Jolley S, Garety P, Bebbington P (2012) Effective elements of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: results of a novel type of subgroup analysis based on principal stratification. Psychol Med 42(5):1057–1068PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Durham RC, Guthrie M, Morton RV, Reid DA, Treliving LR, Fowler D, Macdonald RR (2003) Tayside-fife clinical trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for medication-resistant psychotic symptoms - results to 3-month follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 182:303–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Foster C, Startup H, Potts L, Freeman D (2010) A randomised controlled trial of a worry intervention for individuals with persistent persecutory delusions. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 41(1):45–51PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fowler D, Garety P, Kuipers E (1995) Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: theory and practice. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  37. Fowler D, Hodgekins J, Painter M, Reilly T, Crane C, Macmillan I, Mugford M, Croudace T, Jones PB (2009) Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: a report from the ISREP MRC trial platform study (Improving social recovery in early psychosis). Psychol Med 39(10):1627–1636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Freeman D (2007) Suspicious minds: the psychology of persecutory delusions. Clin Psychol Rev 27(4):425–457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Freeman D, Garety PA (2003) Connecting neurosis and psychosis: the direct influence of emotion on delusions and hallucinations. Behav Res Ther 41(8):923–947PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Freeman D, Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Bebbington PE (2002) A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. Br J Clin Psychol 41:331–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Freeman D, Garety PA, Fowler D, Kuipers E, Bebbington PE, Dunn G (2004) Why do people with delusions fail to choose more realistic explanations for their experiences? An empirical investigation. J Consult Clin Psychol 72(4):671–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Freeman D, Freeman J, Garety P (2006) Overcoming paranoid and suspicious thoughts: a self help guide using cognitive behavioural techniques. Robinson, UKGoogle Scholar
  43. Freeman D, Dunn G, Startup H, Kingdon D (2012) The effects of reducing worry in patients with persecutory delusions: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 13Google Scholar
  44. Freeman D, Dunn G, Garety P, Weinman J, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Jolley S, Bebbington P (2013) Patients’ beliefs about the causes, persistence and control of psychotic experiences predict take-up of effective cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. Psychol Med 43(2):269–277PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Frueh BC, Grubaugh AL, Cusack KJ, Kimble MO, Elhai JD, Knapp RG (2009) Exposure-based cognitive-behavioral treatment of PTSD in adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: a pilot study. J Anxiety Disord 23(5):665–675PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Garety PA, Freeman D (1999) Cognitive approaches to delusions: a critical review of theories and evidence. Br J Clin Psychol 38:113–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Garety P, Fowler D, Kuipers E, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Hadley C, Jones S (1997) London East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis.2. Predictors of outcome. Br J Psychiatry 171:420–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Freeman D, Bebbington PE (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychol Med 31(2):189–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Garety PA, Bebbington P, Fowler D, Freeman D, Kuipers E (2007) Implications for neurobiological research of cognitive models of psychosis: a theoretical paper. Psychol Med 37(10):1377–1391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Garety PA, Fowler DG, Freeman D, Bebbington P, Dunn G, Kuipers E (2008) Cognitive-behavioural therapy and family intervention for relapse prevention and symptom reduction in psychosis: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 192(6):412–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilbert P (2010) Compassion-focused therapy: distinctive features (CBT distinctive features). Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Granholm E, McQuaid JR, McClure FS, Pedrelli P, Jeste DV (2002) A randomized controlled pilot study of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older patients with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 53(1–2):167–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Granholm E, Mcquaid JR, Mcclure FS, Auslander LA, Perivoliotis D, Pedrelli P, Patterson T, Jeste DV (2005) A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for middle-aged and older outpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 162(3):520–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Granholm E, Mcquaid JR, Link PC, Fish S, Patterson T, Jeste DV (2008) Neuropsychological predictors of functional outcome in cognitive behavioral social skills training for older people with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 100(1–3):133–143PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grant PM, Beck AT (2009) Defeatist beliefs as a mediator of cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and functioning in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 35(4):798–806PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grant PM, Huh GA, Perivoliotis D, Stolar NM, Beck AT (2012) Randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive therapy for low-functioning patients with schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(2):121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Greenwood KE, Sweeney A, Williams S et al (2010) Choice of outcome in Cbt for PsychosEs (CHOICE): the development of a new service-user led outcome measure for CBT with psychosis. Schizophr Bull 36:126–135PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gumley A, O’Grady M, Mcnay L, Reilly J, Power K, Norrie J (2003) Early intervention for relapse in schizophrenia: results of a 12-month randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy. Psychol Med 33(3):419–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hacker D, Birchwood M, Tudway J, Meaden A, Amphlett C (2008) Acting on voices: omnipotence, sources of threat, and safety-seeking behaviours. Br J Clin Psychol 46:201–213Google Scholar
  60. Haddock G, McCarron J, Tarrier N et al (1999) Scales to measure dimensions of hallucinations and delusions: the psychotic symptom rating scales (PSYRATS). Psychol Med 29:879–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Haddock G, Barrowclough C, Tarrier N, Moring J, O’Brien R, Schofield N, Quinn J, Palmer S, Davies L, Lowens I, McGovern J, Lewis S (2003) Cognitive-behavioural therapy and motivational intervention for schizophrenia and substance misuse - 18-month outcomes of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 183:418–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Haddock G, Barrowclough C, Shaw JJ, Dunn G, Novaco RW, Tarrier N (2009) Cognitive-behavioural therapy V. social activity therapy for people with psychosis and a history of violence: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 194(2):152–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hall PL, Tarrier N (2003) The cognitive-behavioural treatment of low self-esteem in psychotic patients: a pilot study. Behav Res Ther 41(3):317–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Halperin S, Nathan P, Drummond P, Castle D (2000) A cognitive-behavioural, group-based intervention for social anxiety in schizophrenia. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 34(5):809–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hardy A, Smith B, Gottleib JD, Mueser KT, Steel C (2013) CBT for post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. In: Steel C (ed) CBT for schizophrenia: evidence-based interventions and future directions. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Hayes SC, Villatte M, Levin M, Hildebrandt M (2011) Open, aware and active: contextual approaches as an emerging trend in the behavioral and cognitive therapies. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 7:141–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hayward M, Strauss C, Kingdon D (2012) Overcoming distressing voices: a self-help guide using cognitive behavioural techniques. Robinson, UKGoogle Scholar
  68. Hepworth C, Startup H, Freeman D (2011) Developing treatments of persistent persecutory delusions the impact of an emotional processing and metacognitive awareness intervention. J Nervous Mental Dis 199(9):653–658Google Scholar
  69. Jauhar S, McKenna PJ, Radua J, Fung E, Salvador R, Laws KR (2014) Cognitive-behavioural therapy for the symptoms of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta analysis with examination of potential bias. Br J Psychiatry 204:20–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Johns LC, Sellwood W, McGovern J, Haddock G (2002) Battling boredom: group cognitive behaviour therapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behav Cogn Psychother 30(3):341–346Google Scholar
  71. Johns LC, Cannon M, Singleton N, Murray RM, Farrell M, Brugha T, Bebbington P, Jenkins R, Meltzer H (2004) Prevalence and correlates of self-reported psychotic symptoms in the British population. Br J Psychiatry 185:298–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Johns L, Keen N, Jolley S, Peters E (2013) CBT with people with psychosis. In: Whittington A, Grey N (eds) How to become a more effective CBT therapist: developing meta-competence in clinical practice. Wiley-Blackwell, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  73. Jolley S, Garety P (2011) Cognitive-behavioural interventions. In: Gaebel W (ed) Schizophrenia: current science and clinical practice. World Psychiatric Association, Wiley-BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  74. Jones C, Cormac I, Silveira daMota Neto JI, Campbell C (2004) Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Syst RevGoogle Scholar
  75. Jones C, Hacker D, Cormac I, Meaden A, Irving CB (2012) Cognitive behaviour therapy versus other psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. CD008712Google Scholar
  76. Kingdon DG, Turkington D (1994) Cognitive behavioural therapy of schizophrenia. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Kingdon DG, Turkington D (2005) Cognitive therapy of schizophrenia. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  78. Kingsep P, Nathan P, Castle D (2003) Cognitive behavioural group treatment for social anxiety in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 63(1–2):121–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Klingberg S, Wolwer W, Engel C, Wittorf A, Herrlich J, Meisner C, Buchkremer G, Wiedemann G (2011) Negative symptoms of schizophrenia as primary target of cognitive behavioral therapy: results of the randomized clinical TONES study. Schizophr Bull 37:S98–S110PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Knight MTD, Wykes T, Hayward P (2006) Group treatment of perceived stigma and self-esteem in schizophrenia. A waiting list trial of efficacy. Behav Cogn Psychother 34(3):305–318Google Scholar
  81. Krakvik B, Grawe RW, Hagen R, Stiles TC (2013) Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychotic symptoms: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial. Behav Cogn Psychother 41(5):511–524PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kreyenbuhl J, Buchanan RW, Dickerson FB, Dixon LB (2010) The schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT): updated treatment recommendations 2009. Schizophr Bull 36(1):94–103PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Kuipers E, Garety P, Fowler D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Freeman D, Hadley C (1997) London East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis.1. Effects of the treatment phase. Br J Psychiatry 171:319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Kuipers E, Fowler D, Garety P, Chisholm D, Freeman D, Dunn G, Bebbington P, Hadley C (1998) London East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis - III: follow-up and economic evaluation at 18 months. Br J Psychiatry 173:61–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Laithwaite HM, Gumley A, Benn A, Scott E, Downey K, Black K, McEwen S (2007) Self-esteem and psychosis: a pilot study investigating the effectiveness of a self-esteem programme on the self-esteem and positive symptomatology of mentally disordered offenders. Behav Cogn Psychother 35(5):569–577Google Scholar
  86. Lecomte T, Leclerc C, Corbiere M, Wykes T, Wallace CJ, Spidel A (2008) Group cognitive behavior therapy or social skills training for individuals with a recent onset of psychosis? Results of a randomized controlled trial. J Nervous Mental Dis 196(12):866–875Google Scholar
  87. Lincoln TM, Ziegler M, Mehl S, Kesting ML, Lullmann E, Westermann S, Rief W (2012) Moving from efficacy to effectiveness in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis: a randomized clinical practice trial. J Consult Clin Psychol 80(4):674–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lynch D, Laws KR, Mckenna PJ (2010) Cognitive behavioural therapy for major psychiatric disorder: does it really work? A meta-analytical review of well-controlled trials. Psychol Med 40(1):9–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Meaden A, Keen N, Aston R, Barton K, Bucci S (2013) Cognitive therapy for command hallucinations: an advanced practical companion. Routledge, HoveGoogle Scholar
  90. Morberg Pain C, Chadwick P, Abba N (2008) Clients’ experience of case formulation in cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis. Br J Clin Psychol 47(Pt 2):127–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Moritz S, Woodward TS (2007) Metacognitive training in schizophrenia: from basic research to knowledge translation and intervention. Curr Opin Psychiatry 20(6):619–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Morris E, Johns LC, Oliver J (eds) (2013) Acceptance and commitment therapy and mindfulness for psychosis. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  93. Morrison AP (2001) The interpretation of intrusions in psychosis: an integrative cognitive approach to hallucinations and delusions. Behav Cogn Psychother 29:257–276Google Scholar
  94. Morrison AP (ed) (2002) A casebook of cognitive therapy for psychosis. Brunner-Routledge, East Sussex, UKGoogle Scholar
  95. Morrison AP, Frame L, Larkin W (2003) Relationships between trauma and psychosis: a review and integration. Br J Clin Psychol 42:331–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Morrison AP, Renton JC, Williams S, Dunn H, Knight A, Kreutz M, Nothard S, Patel U, Dunn G (2004) Delivering cognitive therapy to people with psychosis in a community mental health setting: an effectiveness study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 110(1):36–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Morrison AP, Gumley AI, Ashcroft K, Reneta Manousos I, White R, Gillan K, Wells A, Kingdon D (2011) Metacognition and persecutory delusions: tests of a metacognitive model in a clinical population and comparisons with non-patients. Br J Clin Psychol 50:223–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Morrison AP, Turkington D, Wardle M, Spencer H, Barratt S, Dudley R, Brabban A, Hutton P (2012) A preliminary exploration of predictors of outcome and cognitive mechanisms of change in cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis in people not taking antipsychotic medication. Behav Res Ther 50(2):163–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Morrison AP, Wardle M, Hutton P, Davies L, Dunn G, Brabban A, Byrne R, Drage L, Spencer H, Turkington D (2013) Assessing cognitive therapy instead of neuroleptics: rationale, study design and sample characteristics of the ACTION trial. Psychosis 5:82–92Google Scholar
  100. Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD, Goodman LA, Trumbetta SL (2002) Trauma, PTSD, and the course of severe mental illness: an interactive model. Schizophr Res 53(1–2):123–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mueser KT, Salyers MP, Rosenberg SD, Goodman LA, Essock SM, Osher FC, Swartz MS, Butterfield MI, 5 Site Health Risk Study Research Committee (2004) Interpersonal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with severe mental illness: demographic, clinical, and health correlates. Schizophr Bull 30(1):45–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD, Xie H, Jankowski MK, Bolton EE, Lu W, Hamblen JL, Rosenberg HJ, Mchugo GJ, Wolfe R (2008) A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. J Consult Clin Psychol 76(2):259–271PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Myers E, Startup H, Freeman D (2011) Cognitive behavioural treatment of insomnia in individuals with persistent persecutory delusions: a pilot trial. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 42(3):330–336PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Naeem F, Kingdon D, Turkington D (2008) Predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in the treatment of schizophrenia: a comparison of brief and standard interventions. Cogn Ther Res 32(5):651–656Google Scholar
  105. Nelson H (2005) Cognitive-behavioural therapy with delusions and hallucinations: a practice manual, 2nd edn. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham, UKGoogle Scholar
  106. NICE (2002) Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care. Gaskell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. NICE (2009) Schizophrenia: core interventions in the treatment and management of schizophrenia in primary and secondary care (Update). Gaskell, LondonGoogle Scholar
  108. Perivoliotis D, Grant PM, Peters ER, Ison R, Kuipers E, Beck AT (2010) Cognitive insight predicts favorable outcome in cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis. Psychosis 2(1):23–33Google Scholar
  109. Peters E (2010) Assessment in psychosis. In: Hagen R, Turkington D, Berge T, Grawe RW (eds) CBT for psychosis: a symptom-based approach. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Peters E, Landau S, Mccrone P, Cooke M, Fisher P, Steel C, Evans R, Carswell K, Dawson K, Williams S, Howard A, Kuipers E (2010) A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis in a routine clinical service. Acta Psychiatr Scand 122(4):302–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Peters E, Lataster T, Greenwood K, Kuipers E, Scott J, Williams S, Garety P, Myin-Germeys I (2012a) Appraisals, psychotic symptoms and affect in daily life. Psychol Med 42:1013–1023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Peters E, Williams SL, Cooke MA, Kuipers E (2012b) It’s not what you hear, it’s the way you think about it: appraisals as determinants of affect and behaviour in voice hearers. Psychol Med 42:1507–1514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Peters ER, Moritz S, Schwannauer M, Wiseman Z, Greenwood KE, Scott J, Beck AT, Donaldson C, Hagen R, Ross K, Veckenstedt R, Ison R, Williams S, Kuipers E, Garety PA (2013) The cognitive biases questionnaire (CBQp). Schizophr Bull. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs199 PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. Pfammater M, Junghan UM, Brenner HD (2006) Efficacy of psychological therapy in schizophrenia: conclusions from meta-analyses. Schizophr Bull 32:S64–S80Google Scholar
  115. Premkumar P, Peters ER, Fannon D, Anilkumar AP, Kuipers E, Kumari V (2011) Coping styles predict responsiveness to cognitive behaviour therapy in psychosis. Psychiatry Res 187(3):354–362PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Rathod S, Phiri P, Harris S, Underwood C, Thagadur M, Padmanabi U, Kingdon D (2013) Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis can be adapted for minority ethnic groups: a randomised controlled trial. Schizophr Res 143(2–3):319–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Read J, Perry BD, Moskowitz A, Connolly J (2001) The contribution of early traumatic events to schizophrenia in some patients: a traumagenic neurodevelopmental model. Psychiatry 64:319–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Read J, Van Os J, Morrison AP, Ross CA (2005) Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatr Scand 112(5):330–350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Rector NA, Seeman MV, Segal ZV (2003) Cognitive therapy for schizophrenia: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Schizophr Res 63(1–2):1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Rector NA, Beck AT, Stolar N (2005) The negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a cognitive perspective. Can J Psychiatry 50(5):247–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Ross K, Freeman D, Dunn G, Garety P (2011) A randomized experimental investigation of reasoning training for people with delusions. Schizophr Bull 37(2):324–333PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sarin F, Wallin L, Widerlov B (2011) Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: a meta-analytical review of randomized controlled trials. Nord J Psychiatry 65(3):162–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Sensky T, Turkington D, Kingdon D, Scott JL, Scott J, Siddle R, O’Carroll M, Barnes TRE (2000) A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for persistent symptoms in schizophrenia resistant to medication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(2):165–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Slade M, Priebe S (2001) Are randomised controlled trials the only gold that glitters? Br J Psychiatry 179:286–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Sorrell E, Hayward M, Meddings S (2010) Interpersonal processes and hearing voices: a study of the association between relating to voices and distress in clinical and non-clinical hearers. Behav Cogn Psychother 38(2):127–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Startup M, Jackson MC, Bendix S (2004) North Wales randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for acute schizophrenia spectrum disorders: outcomes at 6 and 12 months. Psychol Med 34(3):413–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Steel C (ed) (2013) CBT for schizophrenia: evidence-based interventions and future directions. Wiley, West Sussex, UKGoogle Scholar
  128. Steel C, Fowler D, Holmes EA (2005) Trauma-related intrusions and psychosis: an information-processing account. Behav Cogn Psychother 33:139–152Google Scholar
  129. Steel C, Tarrier N, Stahl D, Wykes T (2012) Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: the impact of therapist training and supervision. Psychother Psychosom 81(3):194–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Steel C, Rose S, Enright S, Wykes T, Mueser K, Rose D, Knapp M (2010) The acceptability and effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder within schizophrenia. Research for Patient Benefit Award - PB-PG-1207-15027Google Scholar
  131. Tarrier N, Wykes T (2004) Is there evidence that cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for schizophrenia? A cautious or cautionary tale? Behav Res Ther 42(12):1377–1401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Tarrier N, Harwood S, Yusopoff L, Beckett R, Baker A (1990) Coping strategy enhancement (Cse) - a method of treating residual schizophrenic symptoms. Behav Psychother 18(4):283–293Google Scholar
  133. Tarrier N, Yusupoff L, Kinney C, McCarthy E, Gledhill A, Haddock G, Morris J (1998) Randomised controlled trial of intensive cognitive behaviour therapy for patients with chronic schizophrenia. Br Med J 317(7154):303–307Google Scholar
  134. Tarrier N, Wittkowski A, Kinney C, McCarthy E, Morris J, Humphreys L (1999) Durability of the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia: 12-month follow-up. Br J Psychiatry 174:500–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Trower P, Birchwood M, Meaden A, Byrne S, Nelson A, Ross K (2004) Cognitive therapy for command hallucinations: randomised controlled trial (vol 184, pg 312, 2004). Br J Psychiatry 184:456Google Scholar
  136. Turkington D, Sensky T, Scott J, Barnes TRE, Nur U, Siddle R, Hammond K, Samarasekara N, Kingdon D (2008) A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy for persistent symptoms in schizophrenia: a five-year follow-up. Schizophr Res 98(1–3):1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Valmaggia LR, Van der Gaag M, Tarrier N, Pijnenborg M, Slooff CJ (2005) Cognitive-behavioural therapy for refractory psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia resistant to atypical antipsychotic medication - randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 186:324–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. van den Berg DPG, van der Gaag M (2012) Treating trauma in psychosis with EMDR: a pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 43:664–671PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. van Os J, Linscott RJ, Myin-Germeys I, Delespaul P, Krabbendam L (2009) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychol Med 39(2):179–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Varese F, Smeets F, Drukker M, Lieverse R, Lataster T, Viechtbauer W, Read J, van Os J, Bentall RP (2012) Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophr Bull 38(4):661–671PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Vaughan S, Fowler D (2004) The distress experienced by voice hearers is associated with the perceived relationship between the voice hearer and the voice. Br J Clin Psychol 43:143–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Waller H, Freeman D, Jolley S, Dunn G, Garety P (2011) Targeting reasoning biases in delusions: a pilot study of the Maudsley Review Training Programme for individuals with persistent, high conviction delusions. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 42(3):414–421PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Waller H, Garety PA, Jolley S, Fornells-Ambrojo M, Kuipersa E, Onwumere J, Woodall A, Emsley R, Craig T (2013) Low intensity cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis: a pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 44(1):98–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Wykes T, Steel C, Everitt B, Tarrier N (2008) Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophr Bull 34(3):523–537PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Zimmermann G, Favrod J, Trieu VH, Pomini V (2005) The effect of cognitive behavioral treatment on the positive symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis. Schizophr Res 77(1):1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine C. M. Hunter
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Louise C. Johns
    • 1
    • 2
  • Juliana Onwumere
    • 2
    • 3
  • Emmanuelle Peters
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.PICuP (Psychological Interventions Clinic for outpatients with Psychosis), South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM)LondonUK
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyInstitute of Psychiatry, King’s CollegeLondonUK
  3. 3.National Psychosis UnitThe South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM)LondonUK

Personalised recommendations