Auxin Biology: Applications and the Mechanisms Behind

  • Petr Skůpa
  • Zdeněk Opatrný
  • Jan Petrášek
Part of the Plant Cell Monographs book series (CELLMONO, volume 22)


This chapter describes the state of the contemporary knowledge of auxin action reflected in its applications in agriculture and biotechnology. We summarise the current understanding of the mechanism of action for endogenous and major synthetic auxins highlighting their morphogenic character that modulates numerous aspects of plant development. Various auxins and auxin-like compounds are used in techniques of plant vegetative propagation, in vitro culture and regeneration, and they play also a role as important herbicides. We discuss potential applications of auxins in commercially relevant procedures used in the context of plant generative and fruit development, abscission, apical dominance and tropisms. These technologies are based rather on the phenomenology of auxin applications, and the molecular mechanisms behind are still not fully uncovered.


Adventitious Root Auxin Transport Polar Auxin Transport Abscission Zone Endogenous Auxin 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors acknowledge support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic (project MSM00216208858) and Charles University in Prague (project SVV 265203/2012).


  1. Atta R, Laurens L, Boucheron-Dubuisson E et al (2009) Pluripotency of Arabidopsis xylem pericycle underlies shoot regeneration from root and hypocotyl explants grown in vitro. Plant J Cell Mol Biol 57:626–644Google Scholar
  2. Baker DA (2000) Vascular transport of auxins and cytokinins in Ricinus. Plant Growth Regul 32:157–160Google Scholar
  3. Balla J, Kalousek P, Reinöhl V et al (2011) Competitive canalization of PIN-dependent auxin flow from axillary buds controls pea bud outgrowth. Plant J65:571–577Google Scholar
  4. Bangerth F (2000) Abscission and thinning of young fruit and their regulation by plant hormones and bioregulators. Plant Growth Regul 31:43–59Google Scholar
  5. Barbez E, Kubeš M, Rolčík J et al (2012) A novel putative auxin carrier family regulates intracellular auxin homeostasis in plants. Nature 485:119–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow PW (1994) The origin, diversity and biology of shoot-borne roots. In: Davies TD, Haissig BE (eds) Biology of adventitious root. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Benková E, Michniewicz M, Sauer M et al (2003) Local, efflux-dependent auxin gradients as a common module for plant organ formation. Cell 115:591–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett MJ, Marchant A, Green HG et al (1996) Arabidopsis AUX1 gene: a permease-like regulator of root gravitropism. Science 273:948–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Berleth T, Mattsson J, Hardtke CS (2000) Vascular continuity and auxin signals. Trends Plant Sci 5:387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bhalerao RP, Bennett MJ (2003) The case for morphogens in plants. Nat Cell Biol 5:939–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bielach A, Duclercq J, Marhavý P, Benková E (2012) Genetic approach towards the identification of auxin-cytokinin crosstalk components involved in root development. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser B 367:1469–1478Google Scholar
  12. Bishopp A, Benková E, Helariutta Y (2011) Sending mixed messages: auxin-cytokinin crosstalk in roots. Curr Opin Plant Biol 14:10–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Blakesley D, Weston GD, Hall JF (1991) The role of endogenous auxin in root initiation. Plant Growth Regul 10:341–353Google Scholar
  14. Blazkova A, Sotta B, Tranvan H et al (1997) Auxin metabolism and rooting in young and mature clones of Sequoia sempervirens. Physiol Plant 99:73–80Google Scholar
  15. Bojarczuk T, Jankiewicz LS (1975) Influence of phenolic substances on rooting of softwood cuttings of Populus alba L., and P. canescens Sm. Acta Agrobot 28:121–129Google Scholar
  16. Botton A, Eccher G, Forcato C et al (2011) Signaling pathways mediating the induction of apple fruitlet abscission. Plant Physiol 155:185–208PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Buechel S, Leibfried A, To JPC et al (2010) Role of A-type ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATORS in meristem maintenance and regeneration. Eur J Cell Biol 89:279–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Burg SP, Burg EA (1966) The interaction between auxin and ethylene and its role in plant growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 55:262PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Calderón Villalobos LIA, Lee S, De Oliveira C et al (2012) A combinatorial TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptor system for differential sensing of auxin. Nat Chem Biol 8:477–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Campanoni P, Nick P (2005) Auxin-dependent cell division and cell elongation. 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid activate different pathways. Plant Physiol 137:939–948PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chriqui D (2008) Devel Biol. In: Edwin GF, Hall MA, De Klerk G (eds) Plant propagation by tissue culture: the background. Springer, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Cobb A, Reade J (2010) Herbicides & plant physiology, 2nd edn. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, p 296Google Scholar
  23. Correa LR, Stein RJ, Fett-Neto AG (2012) Adventitious rooting of detached Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. Biol Plantarun 56:25–30Google Scholar
  24. Dal Bosco C, Dovzhenko A, Liu X et al (2012) The endoplasmic reticulum localized PIN8 is a pollen-specific auxin carrier involved in intracellular auxin homeostasis. Plant J Cell Mol Biol 71:860–870Google Scholar
  25. Darwin C, Darwin F (1881) The power of movement in plants. D. Appleton and Company, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Davies P (2004) Plant hormones – biosynthesis, signal transduction, action! 3rd edn. Kluwer, Dordrecht, p 802Google Scholar
  27. De Klerk G, Van Der Krieken W, De Jong JC (1999) Review the formation of adventitious roots: new concepts, new possibilities. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 35:189–199Google Scholar
  28. Delbarre A, Muller P, Imhoff V, Guern J (1996) Planta and indole-3-acetic acid in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Planta 198:532–541Google Scholar
  29. Dello_Ioio R, Nakamura K, Moubayidin L et al (2008) A genetic framework for the control of cell division and differentiation in the root meristem. Science 322:1380–1384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M (2005a) The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435:441–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Weijers D et al (2005b) Plant development is regulated by a family of auxin receptor F box proteins. Dev Cell 9:109–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Diaz-Sala C, Hutchison KW, Goldfarb B, Greenwood MS (1996) Maturation-related loss in rooting competence by loblolly pine stem cuttings: the role of auxin transport, metabolism and tissue sensitivity. Physiol Plant 97:481–490Google Scholar
  33. Ding Z, Wang B, Moreno I et al (2012) ER-localized auxin transporter PIN8 regulates auxin homeostasis and male gametophyte development in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun 3:941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Dnyansagar VR, Khosla SN (1969) Effect of 2,4-D sprays on the anatomical characters of some weeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci India B70:287–294Google Scholar
  35. Eames A (1950) Destruction of phloem in young bean plants after treatment with 2,4-D. Am J Bot 37:840–847Google Scholar
  36. Ellis CM, Nagpal P, Young JC et al (2005) AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR1 and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2 regulate senescence and floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development 132:4563–4574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Estornell LH, Agustí J, Merelo P et al (2013) Elucidating mechanisms underlying organ abscission. Plant Sci 199–200:48–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ficcadenti N, Sestili S, Pandolfini T (1999) Genetic engineering of parthenocarpic fruit development in tomato. Mol Breed 5:463–470Google Scholar
  39. Finet C, Jaillais Y (2012) Auxology: when auxin meets plant evo-devo. Dev Biol 369:19–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Ford Y-Y, Bonham EC, Cameron RWF et al (2002) Adventitious rooting: examining the role of auxin in an easy-and a difficult-to-root plant. Plant Growth Regul 36:149–159Google Scholar
  41. Friml J (2003) Auxin transport – shaping the plant. Curr Opin Plant Biol 6:7–12Google Scholar
  42. Friml J, Wiśniewska J, Benková E et al (2002) Lateral relocation of auxin efflux regulator PIN3 mediates tropism in Arabidopsis. Nature 415:806–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gaj MD (2011) Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in the culture of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. immature zygotic embryos. Methods Mol Biol 710:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gälweiler L, Guan C, Müller A et al (1998) Regulation of polar auxin transport by AtPIN1 in Arabidopsis vascular tissue. Science 282:2226–2230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gautheret RJ (1939) Sur la possibilité de realiser a culture indefinite de tissues de tubercules de capote. C R Hebd Seances Acad Sci 208:118–120Google Scholar
  46. Gautheret RJ (1942) Hétéro-auxineset cultures de tissusvégétaux. Bull Soc Chim Biol 24:13–41Google Scholar
  47. Gautheret RJ (1955) Sur la variabilté des propriétésphysiologiques des cultures de tissues végétaux. Rev Gén Bot 62:5–112Google Scholar
  48. Gautheret RJ (1985) History of plant tissue and cell culture: a personal account. In: Vasil IK (ed) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants. Vol 2: Cell growth, nutrition, cytodifferentiation and cryopreservation. Academic, London/New York, pp 1–59Google Scholar
  49. Gauvrit C, Gaillardon P (1991) Effect of low temperatures on 2,4-D behaviour in maize plants. Weed Res 31:135–142Google Scholar
  50. George EF, Sherrington PD (1984) Plant propagation by tissue culture. Handbook and directory of commercial laboratories. Exegetics Ltd, Eversley/Basingstoke/HantsGoogle Scholar
  51. Gilbert FA (1946) The status of plant-growth substances and herbicides in 1945. Chem Rev 39:199–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gleason C, Foley RC, Singh KB (2011) Mutant analysis in Arabidopsis provides insight into the molecular mode of action of the auxinic herbicide dicamba. PloS one 6:e17245PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Goldschmidt EE, Leshem B (1971) Style abscission in the citron (Citrus medica L.) and other citrus species: morphology, physiology, and chemical control with picloram. Am J Bot 58:14–23Google Scholar
  54. Gordon SP, Heisler MG, Reddy GV et al (2007) Pattern formation during de novo assembly of the Arabidopsis shoot meristem. Development 134:3539–3548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grossmann K (2000) Mode of action of auxin herbicides: a new ending to a long, drawn out story. Trends in plant science 5:506–508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Grossmann K (2003) Mediation of herbicide effects by hormone interactions. J Plant Growth Regul 22:109–122Google Scholar
  57. Grossmann K (2007) Auxin herbicide action: lifting the veil step by step. Plant Signal Behav 2:421–423PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Grossmann K (2010) Auxin herbicides: current status of mechanism and mode of action. Pest Manag Sci 66:113–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Grossmann K, Kwiatkowski J (1995) Evidence for a causative role of cyanide, derived from ethylene biosynthesis, in the herbicidal mode of action of quinclorac in barnyard grass. Pestic Biochem Physiol 51:150–160Google Scholar
  60. Grossmann K, Kwiatkowski J (2000) The mechanism of quinclorac selectivity in grasses. Pestic Biochem Physiol 66:83–91Google Scholar
  61. Grossmann K, Scheltrup F, Kwiatkowski J, Caspar G (1996) Induction of abscisic acid is a common effect of auxin herbicides in susceptible plants. J Plant Physiol 149:475–478Google Scholar
  62. Haberlandt G (1902) KulturversuchemitisoliertenPflanzenzellen. SitzungsberAkadWiss Wien Math-Naturwiss Kl Abt J 111:69–92Google Scholar
  63. Hamner CL, Tukey HB (1944) The herbicidal action of 2,4Dichlorphenoxyacetic and 2,4,5 Trichloracetic acid on Bindweed. Science 18:154–155Google Scholar
  64. Hansen H, Grossmann K (2000) Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition. Plant Physiol 124:1437–1448PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hartmann H, Kester D, Davies F (1990) Plant propagation. Principles and practice, 5th edn. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 647Google Scholar
  66. Heap I (1997) The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Pestic Sci 51:235–243Google Scholar
  67. Hitchcock AE, Zimmerman PW (1936) Effect of the use of growth substances on the rooting response of cuttings. Contrib Boyce Thomps Inst 8:63–79Google Scholar
  68. Hošek P, Kubeš M, Laňková M et al (2012) Auxin transport at cellular level: new insights supported by mathematical modelling. J Exp Bot 63:3815–3827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Industry Task Force II on 2,4-D Research Data. Accessed 20 Aug 2013
  70. Jackson RG, Lim EK, Li Y et al (2001) Identification and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis indole-3-acetic acid glucosyltransferase. J Biol Chem 276:4350–4356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jackson RG, Kowalczyk M, Li Y et al (2002) Over-expression of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a glucosyltransferase of indole-3-acetic acid: phenotypic characterisation of transgenic lines. Plant J 32:573–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Jarvis BC, Shaheed AI (1986) Adventitious root formation in relation to the uptake and distribution of supplied auxin. New Phytol 103:23–31Google Scholar
  73. Joo JH, Yoo HJ, Hwang I et al (2005) Auxin-induced reactive oxygen species production requires the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. FEBS Lett 579:1243–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jurado S, Abraham Z, Manzano C et al (2010) The Arabidopsis cell cycle F-box protein SKP2A binds to auxin. Plant Cell 22:3891–3904PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Karcz W, Burdach Z (2002) A comparison of the effects of IAA and 4-Cl-IAA on growth, proton secretion and membrane potential in maize coleoptile segments. J Exp Bot 53:1089–1098PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Karuppanapandian T, Wang H, Prabakaran N et al (2011) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-induced leaf senescence in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) and senescence inhibition by co-treatment with silver nanoparticles. Plant Physiol Biochem 49:168–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Katayama M, Saito T, Kanayama K (2010) 5,6-Dichloroindole-3-acetic acid and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid, two potent candidates for new rooting promoters without estrogenic activity. J Pest Sci 35:134–137Google Scholar
  78. Kazan K, Manners JM (2009) Linking development to defense: auxin in plant-pathogen interactions. Trends Plant Sci 14:373–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Keller CP, Van Volkenburgh E (1997) Auxin-induced epinasty of tobacco leaf tissues (A nonethylene-mediated response). Plant Physiol 113:603–610PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kelley K, Riechers D (2007) Recent developments in auxin biology and new opportunities for auxinic herbicide research. Pest Biochem Physiol 89:1–11Google Scholar
  81. Kepinski S, Leyser O (2005) The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature 435:446–451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kieffer M, Neve J, Kepinski S (2010) Defining auxin response contexts in plant development. Curr Opin Plant Biol 13:12–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Klein AM, Vaissiere BE, Cane JH et al (2007) Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B Biol Sci 274:303–313Google Scholar
  84. Koepfli JB, Thimann KV, Went FV (1938) Phytohormones: structure and physiological activity. I. J Biol Chem 122:763–780Google Scholar
  85. Kögl F, Haagen-Smit AJ, Erxleben H (1934) Übereinneues Auxin (“Hetero-auxin”) ausHarn. 11. MitteilungüberpflanzlicheWachstumsstoffe. Hoppe-SeylersZeitschriftfürphysiologischeChemie 228:90–103Google Scholar
  86. Korasick DA, Enders TA, Strader LC (2013) Auxin biosynthesis and storage forms. J Exp Bot 64:2541–2555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Kubeš M, Yang H, Richter GL et al (2012) The Arabidopsis concentration-dependent influx/efflux transporter ABCB4 regulates cellular auxin levels in the root epidermis. Plant J Cell Mol Biol 69:640–654Google Scholar
  88. Kuhlemeier C, Reinhardt D (2001) Auxin and phyllotaxis. Trends Plant Sci 6:187–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Leopold AC (1955) Auxins and plant growth. University of California Press, Berkeley/Los AngelesGoogle Scholar
  90. Leyser O (2011) Auxin, self-organisation, and the colonial nature of plants. Curr Biol 21:R331–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Liu J-H, Reid DM (1992) Auxin and ethylene-stimulated adventitious rooting in relation to tissue 9. J Exp Bot 43:1191–1198Google Scholar
  92. Ljung K (2013) Auxin metabolism and homeostasis during plant development. Development 140:943–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Ljung K, Bhalerao RP, Sandberg G (2001) Sites and homeostatic control of auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis during vegetative growth. Plant J Cell Mol Biol 28:465–474Google Scholar
  94. Loach K (1988) Hormone applications and adventitious root formation in cuttings – a critical review. Acta Hort (ISHS) 227:126–133Google Scholar
  95. Löbler M, Klämbt D (1985) Auxin-binding protein from coleoptile membranes of corn (Zea mays L.). J Biol Chem 260:9848–9853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Losada JMM, Herrero M (2013) The influence of the progamic phase for fruiting in the apple tree. Ann Appl Biol 163:82–90Google Scholar
  97. Ludwig-Müller J (2011) Auxin conjugates: their role for plant development and in the evolution of land plants. J Exp Bot 62:1757–1773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ludwig-Muller J, Cohen JD (2002) Identification and quantification of three active auxins in different tissues of Tropaeolum majus. Physiol Plant 115:320–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ludwig-Müller J, Vertocnik A, Town CD (2005) Analysis of indole-3-butyric acid-induced adventitious root formation on Arabidopsis stem segments. J Exp Bot 56:2095–2105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Marhavý P, Bielach A, Abas L et al (2011) Cytokinin modulates endocytic trafficking of PIN1 auxin efflux carrier to control plant organogenesis. Dev Cell 21:796–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Maroto JV, Miguel A, Lopez-Galarza S et al (2005) Parthenocarpic fruit set in triploid watermelon induced by CPPUand 2,4-D applications. Plant Growth Regul 45:209–213Google Scholar
  102. Mattsson J, Ckurshumova W, Berleth T (2003) Auxin signaling in Arabidopsis leaf vascular development 1. Plant Physiol 131:1327–1339PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McCarthy-Suárez I, Gómez M, Del Río L, Palma JM (2011) Organ-specific effects of the auxin herbicide 2,4-D on the oxidative stress and senescence-related parameters of the stems of pea plants. Acta Physiol Plant 33:2239–2247Google Scholar
  104. Meins F Jr (1982) Habituation of cultured plant cells. In: Schell J, Kahl G (eds) Molecular biology of plant tumors. Academic, New York, pp 3–31Google Scholar
  105. Meins F Jr (1989) Habituation: heritable variation in the requirement of cultured plant cells for hormones. Annu Rev Genet 23:395–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Meir S, Salim S, Chernov Z, Philosoph-Hadas S (2007) Quality improvement of cut flowers and potted plants with postharvest treatments based on various cytokinins and auxins. Acta Hortic 755:143–154Google Scholar
  107. Menges M, Murray JAH (2002) Synchronous Arabidopsis suspension cultures for analysis of cell-cycle gene activity. Plant J 30:203–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Mithila J, Hall JC (2005) Comparison of ABP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis and under-expressing tobacco with an auxinic herbicide-resistant wild mustard (Brassica kaber) biotype. Plant Sci 169:21–28Google Scholar
  109. Mithila J, Hall J, Johnson W et al (2011) Evolution of resistance to auxinic herbicides: historical perspectives, mechanisms of resistance, and implications for broadleaf weed management in agronomic crops. Weed Sci 59:445–457Google Scholar
  110. Monaco T, Steve J, Weller C, Ashton FM (2002) Weed Sci: principles and practices. Wiley-Blackwell, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  111. Moubayidin L, Di Mambro R, Sabatini S (2009) Cytokinin-auxin crosstalk. Trends Plant Sci 14:557–562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mounet F, Moing A, Kowalczyk M et al (2012) Down-regulation of a single auxin efflux transport protein in tomato induces precocious fruit development. J Exp Bot 63:4901–4917PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Mravec J, Skůpa P, Bailly A et al (2009) Subcellular homeostasis of phytohormone auxin is mediated by the ER-localized PIN5 transporter. Nature 459:1136–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Müller B, Sheen J (2008) Cytokinin and auxin interaction in root stem-cell specification during early embryogenesis. Nature 453:1094–1097PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Nagata T, Nemoto Y, Hasezava S (1992) Tobacco BY-2 cell line as the “HeLa” cell in the cell biology of higher plants. Int Rev Cytol 132:1–30Google Scholar
  116. Napier R, Venis M (1990) Monoclonal antibodies detect an auxin-induced conformational change in the maize auxin-binding protein. Planta 182:313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Nissen SJ, Sutter EG (1990) Stability of IAA and IBA in nutrient medium to several tissue culture procedures. Hort Sci 25:800–802Google Scholar
  118. Nobécourt P (1939) Sur la pérennitéetl’augmentation de volume des cultures de tissues végétaux. C R Seances Soc Biol Ses Fil 130:1270–1271Google Scholar
  119. Noh B, Murphy AS, Spalding EP (2001) Multidrug resistance-like genes of Arabidopsis required for auxin transport and auxin-mediated development. Plant Cell 13:2441–2454PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Nordström AC, Eliasson L (1993) Interaction of ethylene with indole-3-acetic acid in regulation of rooting in pea cuttings. Plant Growth Regul 12:83–90Google Scholar
  121. Nordström AC, Jacobs FA, Eliasson L (1991) Effect of exogenous indole-3-acetic Acid and indole-3-butyric acid on internal levels of the respective auxins and their conjugation with aspartic acid during adventitious root formation in pea cuttings. Plant Physiol 96:856–861PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Novák O, Hényková E, Sairanen I et al (2012) Tissue-specific profiling of the Arabidopsis thaliana auxin metabolome. Plant J Cell Mol Biol 72:523–536Google Scholar
  123. Opatrný Z, Opatrná J (1976) The specificity of the effect of 2,4-D and NAA of the growth, micromorphology, and occurrence of starch in long-term Nicotiana tabacum L. cell strains. Biol Plant 18:359–365Google Scholar
  124. Pernisová M, Klíma P, Horák J, Válková M, Malbeck J, Souček P, Reichman P, Hoyerová K, Dubová J, Friml J, Zažímalová E, Hejátko J (2009) Cytokinins modulate auxin-induced organogenesis in plants via regulation of the auxin efflux. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(9):3609–3614PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Pazmiño D, Romero-Puertas M, Sandalio L (2012) Insights into the toxicity mechanism of and cell response to the herbicide 2,4-D in plants. Plant Signal Behav 7:1–3Google Scholar
  126. Peat TS, Böttcher C, Newman J et al (2012) Crystal structure of an indole-3-acetic acid amido synthetase from grapevine involved in auxin homeostasis. Plant Cell 24:4525–4538PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Perrot-Rechenmann C (2010) Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2:a001446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Petrášek J, Friml J (2009) Auxin transport routes in plant development. Development 136:2675–2688PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Petrášek J, Mravec J, Bouchard R et al (2006) PIN proteins perform a rate-limiting function in cellular auxin efflux. Science 312:914–918PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Pischke MS, Huttlin EL, Hegeman AD, Sussman MR (2006) A transcriptome-based characterization of habituation in plant tissue culture. Plant Physiol 140:1255–1278PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Porter WL, Thimann KV (1965) Molecular requirements for auxin action – I. Phytochemistry 4:229–243Google Scholar
  132. Preece JE (2003) A century of progress with vegetative plant propagation. Hortic Sci 38:1015–1025Google Scholar
  133. Pufky J, Qiu Y, Rao M et al (2003) The auxin-induced transcriptome for etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings using a structure/function approach. Funct Integr Genomics 3:135–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Raghavan V (2004) Role of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in somatic embryogenesis on cultured zygotic embryos of Arabidopsis: cell expansion, cell cycling, and morphogenesis during continuous exposure of embryos to 2,4-D. Am J Bot 91:1743–1756PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Raghavan C, Ong EK, Dalling MJ, Stevenson TW (2005) Effect of herbicidal application of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Arabidopsis. Funct Integr Genomics 5:4–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Raghavan C, Ong EK, Dalling MJ, Stevenson TW (2006) Regulation of genes associated with auxin, ethylene and ABA pathways by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Arabidopsis. Funct Integr Genomics 6:60–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Rahman A, Nakasone A, Chhun T (2006) A small acidic protein 1 (SMAP1) mediates responses of the Arabidopsis root to the synthetic auxin 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plant J 47:788–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rasul M, Mian M, Cho Y et al (2008) Application of plant growth regulators on the parthenocarpic fruit development in Teasle Gourd (Kakrol, Momordica dioica Roxb.). J Fac Agric Kyushu Univ 53:39–42Google Scholar
  139. Reinecke DM (1999) 4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid and plant growth. Plant Growth Regul 27:3–13Google Scholar
  140. Rosquete MR, Barbez E, Kleine-Vehn J (2012) Cellular auxin homeostasis: gatekeeping is housekeeping. Mol Plant 5:772–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Ruan YL, Patrick JW, Bouzayen M et al (2012) Molecular regulation of seed and fruit set. Trends Plant Sci 17:656–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Rubery PH, Sheldrake AR (1974) Carrier-mediated auxin transport. Planta 118:101–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Sabatini S, Beis D, Wolkenfelt H et al (1999) An auxin-dependent distal organizer of pattern and polarity in the Arabidopsis root. Cell 99:463–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Sachs T (1969) Polarity and the induction of organized vascular tissues. Ann Bot 33:263Google Scholar
  145. Sachs T (1991) Cell polarity and tissue patterning in plants. Development 113:83–93Google Scholar
  146. Salaš P, Sasková H, Mokričková J, Litschmann T (2012) Evaluation of different types of rooting stimulators. Acta Univ Agric et Silvic Mendel Brun 60:217–228Google Scholar
  147. Sauer M, Kleine-Vehn J (2011) AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN1: the outsider. Plant Cell 23:2033–2043PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Scarpella E, Barkoulas M, Tsiantis M (2010) Control of leaf and vein development by auxin. Cold Spring Har Perspect Biol 2:a001511Google Scholar
  149. Scheltrup F, Grossmann K (1995) Abscisic acid is a causative factor in the mode of action of the auxinic herbicide quinmerac in cleaver (Galium aparine L.). J Plant Physiol 147:118–126Google Scholar
  150. Schopfer P, Liszkay A (2006) Plasma membrane-generated reactive oxygen intermediates and their role in cell growth of plants. Biofactors 28:73–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Serrani J, Carrera E, Ruiz-Rivero O et al (2010) Inhibition of auxin transport from the ovary or from the apical shoot induces parthenocarpic fruit-set in tomato mediated by gibberellins. Plant Physiol 153:851–862PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shimizu T, Eguchi K, Nishida I, Laukens K, Witters E, van Onckelen H, Nagata T (2006) A novel cell division factor from tobacco 2B-13 cells that induced cell division in auxin-starved tobacco BY-2 cells. Naturwissenschaften 93(6):278–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Sieberer T, Hauser M-T, Seifert GJ, Luschnig C (2003) PROPORZ1, a putative Arabidopsis transcriptional adaptor protein, mediates auxin and cytokinin signals in the control of cell proliferation. Curr Biol 13:837–842PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Simon S, Petrášek J (2011) Why plants need more than one type of auxin. Plant Sci 180:454–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Simon S, Kubeš M, Baster P et al (2013) Defining selectivity of processes along the auxin response 1368 chain: a study using auxin analogues. New Phytol 200:1034–1048Google Scholar
  156. Skoog F, Miller CO (1957) Chemical regulation of growth and organ formation in plant tissues cultured in vitro. Symp Soc Exp Biol 11:118–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Smith HE (1988) The inheritance of genetic tumors in Nicotiana hybrids. J Hered 79:277–284Google Scholar
  158. Staswick PE, Serban B, Rowe M et al (2005) Characterization of an Arabidopsis enzyme family that conjugates amino acids to indole-3-acetic acid. Plant Cell 17:616–627PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Strader LC, Bartel B (2011) Transport and metabolism of the endogenous auxin precursor indole-3-butyric acid. Mol Plant 4:477–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Struckmeyer B (1951) Comparative effects of growth substances on stem anatomy. In: Skoog F (ed) Plant growth substances. University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, pp 167–174Google Scholar
  161. Su Y-H, Liu Y-B, Zhang X-S (2011) Auxin-cytokinin interaction regulates meristem development. Mol Plant 4:616–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sugimoto K, Jiao Y, Meyerowitz EM (2010) Arabidopsis regeneration from multiple tissues occurs via a root development pathway. Dev Cell 18:463–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sundberg E, Ostergaard L (2009) Distinct and dynamic auxin activities during reproductive development. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1:a001628–a001628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Szmedra P (1997) Banning 2,4-D and the phenoxy herbicides: potential economic impact. Weed Sci 45:592–598Google Scholar
  165. Tagliani L (2011) Dow AgroSciences. Petition for determination of nonregulated status for herbicide tolerant DAS-40278-9 CornGoogle Scholar
  166. Taiz L, Zeiger E (2002) Plant physiology. Sinauer Associates Inc., SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  167. Taylor IB, Burbidge A, Thompson AJ (2000) Control of abscisic acid synthesis. J Exp Bot 51:1563–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Tivendale ND, Davidson SE, Davies NW et al (2012) Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. Plant Physiol 159:1055–1063PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Tognetti VB, Van Aken O, Morreel K et al (2010) Perturbation of indole-3-butyric acid homeostasis by the UDP-glucosyltransferase UGT74E2 modulates Arabidopsis architecture and water stress tolerance. Plant Cell 22:2660–2679PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Torrigiani P, Bressanin D, Beatriz Ruiz K et al (2012) Spermidine application to young developing peach fruits leads to a slowing down of ripening by impairing ripening-related ethylene and auxin metabolism and signaling. Physiol Plant 146:86–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Trewavas AJ (1982) Growth substance sensitivity: the limiting factor in plant development. Physiol Plant 55:60–72Google Scholar
  172. Valvekens D, Vanmontagu M, Vanlijsebettens M (1988) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis-thaliana root explants by using kanamycin selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:5536–5540PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Vanneste S, Friml J (2009) Auxin: a trigger for change in plant development. Cell 136:1005–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Vanstraelen M, Benková E (2012) Hormonal interactions in the regulation of plant development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 28:463–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Vasil IK (1986) Cell culture and somatic cell genetics of plants. Vol 3: Plant regeneration and genetic variability. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  176. Walsh TA, Neal R, Merlo AO et al (2006) Mutations in an auxin receptor homolog AFB5 and in SGT1b confer resistance to synthetic picolinate auxins and not to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or indole-3-acetic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 142:542–552PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Wehtje G (2008) Synergism of dicamba with diflufenzopyr with respect to turfgrass weed control. Weed Technol 22:679–684Google Scholar
  178. Weijers D, Jürgens G (2005) Auxin and embryo axis formation: the ends in sight? Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:32–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Went FW (1928) Wuchsstoff und Wachstum. Rec Trav Bot Neerl 25:1–116Google Scholar
  180. Went FW (1934) A test method for rhizocaline, the root forming substance. ProcKonAkadWetenschap Amst 37:445–455Google Scholar
  181. White PR (1934) Potentially unlimited growth of excised tomato root tips in a liquid medium. Plant Physiol 9:585–600PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. White PR (1939) Potentially unlimited growth of excised plant casus in an artificial medium. Am J Bot 26:59–64Google Scholar
  183. Wightman F, Lighty DL (1982) Identification of phenylacetic acid as a natural auxin in the shoots of higher plants. Physiol Plant 55:17–24Google Scholar
  184. Woeste KE, Ye C, Kieber JJ (1999) Two Arabidopsis mutants that overproduce ethylene are affected in the posttranscriptional regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. Plant Physiol 119:521–530PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wright T, Shan G, Walsha T et al (2010) Robust crop resistance to broadleaf and grass herbicides provided by aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase transgenes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:20240–20245PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Xie RJ, Deng L, Jing L et al (2013) Recent advances in molecular events of fruit abscission. Biol Plant 57:201–209Google Scholar
  187. Yamakawa T, Kurahashi O, Ishida K (1979) Note stability of indole-3-acetic autoclaving, aeration light illumination acid to and of agricultural chemistry. Agric Biol Chem 43:879–880Google Scholar
  188. Yu H, Moss BL, Jang SS et al (2013) Mutations in the TIR1 auxin receptor that increase affinity for auxin/indole-3-acetic acid proteins result in auxin hypersensitivity. Plant Physiol 162:295–303PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Zažímalová E, Kutáček M (1985) Auxin-binding site in wheat shoots: interactions between indol-3-ylacetic acid and its halogenated derivatives. Biol Plant 27:114–118Google Scholar
  190. Zhang Y, Tan J, Guo Z et al (2009) Increased abscisic acid levels in transgenic tobacco over-expressing 9 cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase influence H2O2 and NO production and antioxidant defences. Plant Cell Environ 32:509–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Zhang M, Zheng X, Song S et al (2011) Spatiotemporal manipulation of auxin biosynthesis in cotton ovule epidermal cells enhances fiber yield and quality. Nat Biotechnol 29:453–458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Zimmerman PW, Wilcoxon F (1935) Several chemical growth substances which cause Initiation of roots and other responses in plants. Contrib Boyce Thomps Inst 7:209–229Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Experimental Botany ASCRPrague 6Czech Republic
  2. 2.Department of Experimental Plant Biology, Faculty of ScienceCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations