Ten National Cyber Security Strategies: A Comparison

  • H. A. M. Luiijf
  • Kim Besseling
  • Maartje Spoelstra
  • Patrick de Graaf
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 6983)


A number of nations developed and published a national cyber security strategy (NCSS). Most of them were published in the period 2009 - 2011. Despite the fact that each of these NCSS intends to address the cyber security threat, large differences exist between the NCSS approaches. This paper analyses and compares the NCSS of Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Thirteen observations lead to a set of conclusions which nations with an NCSS and developers of future NCSS may use to their advantage.


cyber security strategy policy critical infrastructure national security 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. A. M. Luiijf
    • 1
  • Kim Besseling
    • 1
  • Maartje Spoelstra
    • 1
  • Patrick de Graaf
    • 2
  1. 1.TNOThe HagueThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Capgemini Netherlands BVUtrechtThe Netherlands

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