Collectivism as an Aid or Obstacle to Economic Growth

  • Panagiotis E. Petrakis
Chapter

Abstract

The present chapter analyzes a cultural dimension of particular importance, which concerns the extent that individualism and collectivism characterize every society. Collectivism can primarily be defined as a social stereotype comprising strong cohesive ties among individuals that consider themselves members of one or more groups (e.g., family, race and nation). Individuals act on the basis of the group’s norms and give priority to group goals over their own. Individualism, on the other hand, can be defined as a social stereotype in which individuals consider themselves as independent entities. These particular individuals act primarily on the basis of their own preferences, needs and goals, and the only incentive to enter into social relationships is for their own personal benefit.

References

  1. Acemoglu D, Robinson JA (2012) Why nations fail: the origins of power, prosperity and poverty. Crown Publishers, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacon MK (1973) Cross-cultural studies in drinking. In: Bourne PG, Fox R (eds) Alcoholism: progress in research and treatment. Academic, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  3. Bellah RN, Madsen R, Sullivan WM, Swidler A, Tipton SM (1988) Individualism and commitment in American life: readings on the themes of habits of the heart. Harper & Row, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. Brodbar N, Jay Y (1986) Divorce and group commitment: the case of the Jews. J Marriage Fam 48:329–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cardem A (1993) Homesickness. Seminar given at the East–west Center in Hawaii, OctoberGoogle Scholar
  6. Donohue WA (1990) The new freedom: individualism and collectivism in the social lives of Americans. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, NJGoogle Scholar
  7. Eckensberger LH (1994) Moral development and its measurement across cultures. In: Lonner WJ, Malpass R (eds) Psychology and culture. Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  8. Erez M (1994) Toward a model of cross-cultural industrial and organizational psychology. In: Triandis HC, Dunnette M, Hough L (eds) Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Palo Alto Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CAGoogle Scholar
  9. Erez M, Earley PC (1993) Culture, self-identity, and work. Oxford University Press, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Espinoza JA, Garza RT (1985) Social group salience and interethnic cooperation. J Exp Soc Psychol 21:380–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gallup G (1976) Human needs and satisfactions: a global survey. Public Opin Q 40:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giddens A (1991) Modernity and self-identity. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CAGoogle Scholar
  13. Gross JL, Rayner S (1985) Measuring culture. Columbia University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Helmreich RL, Beane WE, Lucker GW, Spence JT (1978) Achievement motivation and scientific attainment. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 4:222–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hillhouse RJ (1993) The individual revolution: the social basis of transition toward democracy? Dissertation, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  16. Hofstede G (1980) Culture’s consequences. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  17. Hofstede G (1991) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. McGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hsu FLK (1983) Rugged individualism reconsidered. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TNGoogle Scholar
  19. Hui CH (1984) Individualism-collectivism: theory, measurement and its relationships to reward allocation. Dissertation, University of Illinois at Champaign-UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  20. Hui CH (1988) Measurement of individualism-collectivism. J Res Pers 22:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kashima E, Kashima Y (1993) Perceptions of general variability of social groups. Soc Cognit 11:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Macfarlane A (1978) The origins of English individualism: the family, property and social transition. Cambridge University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  23. Mead M (1967) Cooperation and competition among primitive peoples. Beacon Press, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  24. Norem-Habeisen AA, Johnson DW (1981) The relationship between cooperative, and individualistic attitudes and different aspects of self-esteem. J Pers 49:415–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pandey J (1986) Socio-cultural perspectives on ingratiation. In: Maher BA, Maher WB (eds) Progress in experimental personality research 14. Academic, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  26. Pareek U (1968) A motivational paradigm of development. J Soc Issues 24:115–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pelto PJ (1968) The difference between “tight” and “loose” societies. Transaction 5:37–40Google Scholar
  28. Phillips HP (1965) Thai peasant personality: the patterning of interpersonal behaviour in the village of Bang Chan. University of California Press, Berkeley, CAGoogle Scholar
  29. Pilisuk M, Parks S (1985) The healing web. University Press of New England, HanoverGoogle Scholar
  30. Robbins MC, de Walt BR, Pelto PJ (1972) Climate and behaviour: a biocultural study. J Cross Cult Psychol 3:331–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rousseaou J (1762) [2008] The social contract. Cosimo Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Sinha D (1988) The family scenario in a developing country and its implications for mental health: the case of India. In: Dasen P, Berry J, Sartorius N (eds) Health and cross-cultural psychology. Sage, Newbury Park, CAGoogle Scholar
  33. Triandis HC (1988) Collectivism v. Individualism: a reconceptualization of a basic concept in cross-cultural social psychology. In: Verma GK, Bagley C (eds) Cross-cultural studies of personality, attitudes and cognition. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Triandis HC, Bontempo R, Villareal MJ, Asai M, Lucca N (1988) Individualism and collectivism: cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol 54:323–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Triandis HC (1990) Cross-cultural studies of individualism and collectivism. In: Berman J (ed) Nebraska symposium on motivation. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  36. Triandis HC (1995) Individualism and collectivism. Westview, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  37. Triandis HC, Leung K, Villareal M, Clack FL (1985) Allocentric vs. idiocentric tendencies: convergent and discriminant validation. J Res Pers 19:395–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Triandis HC, Bontempo R, Leung K, Hui CH (1990a) A method for determining cultural, demographic, and personal constructs. J Cross Cult Psychol 21:302–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Triandis HC, McCusker C, Hui CH (1990b) Multimethod probes of individualism and collectivism. J Pers Soc Psychol 59:1006–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Trimble JE (1994) Cultural variations in use of alcohol and drugs. In: Lonner WJ, Malpass R (eds) Psychology and culture. Allyn & Bacon, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  41. Weber M (1930) [1958] The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. Scribner’s, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  42. Westcott MR (1988) The psychology of human freedom. Springer, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wheeler L, Reis HT, Bond MH (1989) Collectivism-individualism in everyday social life: the Middle Kingdom and the melting pot. J Pers Soc Psychol 57:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Panagiotis E. Petrakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of AthensAthensGreece

Personalised recommendations