Advertisement

At the Interface of Culture, Development, and Forests: Insights from Bolivia and Kenya

  • Stephan RistEmail author
  • Barbara Darr
  • Patrick Bottazzi
Chapter
Part of the Tropical Forestry book series (TROPICAL, volume 9)

Abstract

The first part summarises the origins, definitions and debates around the general notions of development, culture and associated more specific concepts such as identity, tradition, exogenous and endogenous knowledge, institutions, governance or territoriality. A second part highlights how culture and development got related to the debates around sustainable governance of natural resources and forests. The third part illustrates on the basis of a case study from Kenya and Bolivia how culture as a transversal element of forest governance is expressed in empirical terms. Moreover it is shown how the cultural dimension affects positively or negatively the outcomes of culturally shaped forest governance outcomes and the role these effects play in shaping the sustainability of the socio-ecological systems of forests in Africa and South America.

Keywords

Sustainable forest governance Culture and sustainability Bolivia Kenya 

References

  1. Adorno T (1977) Über Tradition. In: Adorno TW, Tiedemann R (eds) Gesammelte Schriften, 1st edn. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  2. Agrawal A (2001) Common property institutions and sustainable governance of resources. World Dev 29:1649–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrade I, Shweder R, Le Vine R (1993) Cultural theory – essays on mind, self and emotion. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Antweiler C, Mersmann C (1996) Local knowledge and cultural skills as resources for sustainable forest development. Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), EschbornGoogle Scholar
  5. Arora V (2006) The forest of symbols embodied in the Tholung sacred landscape of North Sikkim, India. Conserv Soc 4(1):55–83Google Scholar
  6. Barbien E, Baumgärtner S, Chopra K, Costello C, Duraiappah A, Hassan R, Kinzing AP, Lehman M, Pascal U, Polasky S, Perrings C (2009) The valuation of ecosystem services. In: Naeem S, Bunker DE, Hector A, Loreau M, Perrings C (eds) Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, & human wellbeing. An ecological and economic perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 248–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bargatzky T (1986) Einführung in die Kulturökologie. Umwelt, Kultur und Gesellschaft. Reimer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  8. Barnard A, Spencer J (eds) (2003) Encyclopedia of social and cultural anthropology, Reprint. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkes F (1999) Sacred ecology: traditional ecological knowledge and resource management. Taylor & Francis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkes F (2006) From community-based resource management to complex systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):45Google Scholar
  11. Berkes F (2007) Community-based conservation in a globalized world. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:15188–15193PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bleher B, Uster D, Bergsdorf T (2006) Assessment of threat status and management effectiveness in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Biodivers Conserv 15(4):1159–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boillat S (2007) Traditional ecological knowledge, land use and ecosystem diversity in the Tunari National Park (Bolivia). An ethnoecological approach for dialogue between traditional and scientific ecological knowledge. Ph.D. thesis of the Faculty of Sciences. Inauguraldissertation (Ph.D.). Supervision by Urs Stephan Rist, Wiesmann, Hans Hurni, Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), Institute of Geography of the University of Bern, Bern, p 487Google Scholar
  14. Bottazzi P (2008) Linking “"Socio” and “"Bio” diversity: the stakes of indigenous and non-indigenous co-management in the Bolivian Lowlands. In: Galvin M, Haller T (eds) People, protected areas and global change: participatory conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. NCCR Perspective/University of Bern/Geographica Bernensia, Bern, pp 81–109Google Scholar
  15. Bottazzi P (2009) Indigenous governance, protected areas and decentralised forestry: a comparative analysis of two Tsimane’ territories in the Bolivian Lowlands. In: Rist S, Geiser U (eds) Decentralisation meets local complexity: local struggles, state decentralisation and access to natural resources in South Asia and Latin America. NCCR Perspective/University of Bern/Geographica Bernensia, Bern, pp 155–189Google Scholar
  16. Bottazzi P, Dao H (2013) On the road through the Bolivian Amazon: a multi-level land governance analysis of deforestation. Land Use Policy 30:137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brechbühl U, Krieger D, Lesch W, Rey L, Thomas C (1995) Ökologie und Kulturwandel: Wort, Bild, Wert und Glaube als Vermittler zwischen Individuen und Gesellschaft. In: Fuhrer U (ed) Ökologisches Handeln als sozialer Prozess. Ecological action as a social process. Birkhäuser, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  18. Caro V, Ewert A (1995) The influence of acculturation on environmental concerns: an exploratory study. J Environ Educ 26:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castillo FG (1988) Chimanes, Cambas Y Collas’ Relaciones Interetnicas En las Tierras Bajas Tropicales Del Beni (Chimanes, Cambas and Collas Interetnical Relations in the Beni Tropical Lowlands). Escuela profesional Don Bosco, La PazGoogle Scholar
  20. Chartock S (2011) How movement strength matters: social movement strength and the implementation of ethnodevelopment policy in Ecuador and Peru. Stud Comp Int Dev 46:298–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chicchón A (1995) Faunal resource use by the Chimane of Eastern Bolivia: policy notes on a biosphere reserve. In: Sponsel LE (ed) Indigenous peoples and the future of Amazonia: an ecological anthropology of an endangered world. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson/London, pp 225–243Google Scholar
  22. Clastres P (1974) La société contre l’Etat. Recherches d’anthropologie politique. Minuit, ParisGoogle Scholar
  23. Cowen M, Shenton RW (1996) Doctrines of development. Routledge, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Daillant I (1998) Ils sont comme nous, mais … Relations de parenté et de genre entre Chimane et gens de dedans (They look like us, but … kinship and gender between Chimane and inside people). Anthropol Soc 22:75–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daillant I (2003) Sens dessus dessous. Organisation sociale et spatiale des Chimane d’Amazonie bolivienne (Meaning above and below. Social and spatial organisation among Chimane of Bolivian Amazon). Société d’ethnologie, NanterreGoogle Scholar
  26. Darr B (2011) Die kulturelle Bedeutung des Waldes – eine Untersuchung anhand ausgewählter Kulturelemente von drei Ethnien in Westkenia. Ph.D. Technische Universität DresdenGoogle Scholar
  27. Dax T (2001) Endogenous development in Austria’s mountain regions: from a source of irritation to a mainstream movement. Mt Res Dev 21(3):231–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Delgado F, Rist S, Escóbar C (2011) Desarrollo endógeno sustentable: camino para re-actualizar el “Vivir Bien” en el contexto de la revolución democrática y cultural de Bolivia. In: Farah I, Vasapollo L (eds) Vivir bien: ¿Paradigma no capitalista? Postgrado en Ciencias del Desarrollo de la Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (cides-umsa) de Bolivia y el Departamento de Economía de la Universidad de Roma “La Sapienza” de Italia., La Paz, pp 401–422Google Scholar
  29. Descola P (2005) Beyond nature and culture. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Par-delà nature et culture (English trans: Descola P). Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. Devisch R, Crossman P (2002) Endogenous knowledge in anthropological perspective. In: Odora Hoppers C (ed) Indigenous knowledge and the integration of knowledge systems: towards a philosophy of articulation. New Africa Books, Claremont, South Africa, pp 96–125Google Scholar
  31. Dittmann K (no year) Über den Begriff der Tradition. Vorüberlegungen zu den Schwierigkeiten mit einem Begriff. Available online http://www.holmespeare.de/tradition/etexte/ubertrad.html. Accessed on 9 Jan 2009
  32. Eliasch J (2008) The Eliasch review: climate change – financing global forest. UK Government, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Ellis R (1996) A taste for movement: an exploration of the social ethics of the Tsimanes of Lowland Bolivia. Ph.D. dissertation. St. Andrews University, St. AndrewsGoogle Scholar
  34. Ember CR, Ember M (2002) Cultural Anthropology, Tenth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  35. Escobar A (1995) Encountering development: the making and unmaking of the third world. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  36. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2010) Global forest resources assessment. 2010 main report. Forestry Department, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  37. Frow J, Morris M (1993) Australian cultural studies a reader. University of Illinois Press, UrbanaGoogle Scholar
  38. Galvin M, Haller T (eds) (2008) People, protected areas and global change: participatory conservation in Latin America, Africa, Asia and Europe. Geographica Bernensia, BerneGoogle Scholar
  39. Göhler D, Cashore B, Blom B (2013) Forest governance and sustainable rural development. In: Pretzsch J, Uibrig H, Darr D, Auch E (eds) Forests and rural development. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp.Google Scholar
  40. Habermas J (1970) Towards a theory of communicative competence. Inquiry 13:360–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haller T, Galvin M, Meroka P, Alca J, Alvarez A (2008) Who gains from community conservation? Intended and unintended costs and benefits of participative approaches in Peru and Tanzania. J Environ Dev 17:118–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hamilton P (2003) The enlightenment and the birth of social science. In: Hall S (ed) Formations of modernity. Polity Press, Cambridge, pp 17–58Google Scholar
  43. Harmon D (2004) Intangible values of protected areas: what are they? Why do they matter. George Wright Forum 21(2):9–22Google Scholar
  44. Harris M (1989) Kulturanthropologie – Ein Lehrbuch. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  45. Haverkort B, Rist S (2007) Endogenous development and bio-cultural diversity. The interplay of worldview, globalization and locality. COMPAS-CDE, Leusden, p 445Google Scholar
  46. Haviland WA (1993) Cultural anthropology. Wadsworth/Thompson Learning, Orlando, USAGoogle Scholar
  47. Hirsch Hadorn G, Bradley D, Pohl C, Rist S, Wiesmann U (2006) Implications of transdisciplinarity for sustainability research. Ecol Econ 60:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hobsbawm EJ, Ranger TO (1983) The invention of tradition. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Hoffmann A (2009) Auxilium-online. Lateinwörterbuch-Deutsch-Latein. CommTec-Softwareentwicklung. Available online http://www.auxilium-online.net/wb/formenanalyse.php. Accessed on 12 Oct 2009
  50. Ingold T (2000) The perception of the environment. Essays on livelihood, dwelling and skill. Routledge/Taylor& Francis, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Irrgang B (2005) Work Ethics in Judaism, Christianity, Islam and African Religion. Paper presented at the DAAD workshop 28 May to 06 June, TharandtGoogle Scholar
  52. Kingsbury N (2001) Impacts of land use and cultural change in a fragile environment: indigenous acculturation and deforestation in Kavanayen, Gran Sabana, Venezuela. Interciencia 26:327–336Google Scholar
  53. Lele S, Norgaard RB (2005) Practicing interdisciplinarity. Bio Sci 55:967–975Google Scholar
  54. Löwy M (2005) What is ecosocialism? Capital Nat Soc 16:15–24Google Scholar
  55. Maffi L (2005) Linguistic, cultural and biologic diversity. Annu Rev Anthropol 34:599–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Magdoff F, Bellamy Foster J (2010) What every environmentalist needs to know about capitalism. Mon Rev 61:1–21Google Scholar
  57. Martínez-Alier J (2012) Environmental justice and economic degrowth: an alliance between two movements. Capital Nat Soc 23:51–73Google Scholar
  58. Mathez-Stiefel S, Boillat S, Rist S (2007) Promoting the diversity of worldviews: an ontological approach to bio-cultural diversity. In: Haverkort B, Rist S (eds) Endogenous development and bio-cultural diversity. The interplay of worldview, globalization and locality. COMPAS-CDE, Leusden, pp 67–81Google Scholar
  59. McLaren P, Houston D (2004) Revolutionary ecologies: ecosocialism and critical pedagogy. Educ Stud 36:27–45Google Scholar
  60. Mead GH, Morris CW (2000) Mind, self, and society. From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  61. Meadows DH (1972) The limits to growth; a report for the Club of Rome’s project on the predicament of mankind. Universe Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. Meadows DH (2005) Limits to growth the 30-year update, 2005th edn. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  63. Muhlinghaus S, Walty S (2001) Endogenous development in Swiss mountain communities: local initiatives in Urnasch and Schamserberg. Mt Res Dev 21(3):236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Murra J (1972) El “control vertical” de un maximo de pisos ecologicos en la economía de las sociedades andinas. Essai publié dans le tome II de la Visita de la provincia de Leon Huanuco (1562). Universidad Hermilio Valdizan, HuanucoGoogle Scholar
  65. Omari CK (1990) Traditional African land ethics. In: Engel JR, Engel JG (eds) Ethics of environment and development. Global challenge, international response. The University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  66. Onyango JC, Nyanja R (2004) Conservation of biodiversity in the East African tropical forest. Lyonia J Ecol Appl 7(2):151–157Google Scholar
  67. Opotow S, Brook A (2003) Identity and exclusion in rangeland conflict. In: Clayton S, Opotow S (eds) Identity and the natural environment. The psychological significance of nature. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 249–272Google Scholar
  68. Ostrom E, Nagendra H (2006) Inaugural article: insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory. Proc Natl Acad Sci 103:19224–19231PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Peterson RB (2004) Central African voices on the human – environment relationship. In: Gottlieb R (ed) This sacred earth. Religion, nature, environment, 2nd edn. Routledge, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  70. Pinedo-Vasquez MA, Sears RP (2011) “Várzea” forests: multifunctionality as a resource for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. In: Pinedo-Vasquez M, Ruffino M, Padoch LC, Brondízio ES (eds) The Amazon Várzea, Springer, Netherlands, pp 187–206Google Scholar
  71. Pohl C, Rist S, Zimmermann A, Fry P, Gurung GS, Schneider F, Ifejika Speranza C, Kiteme B, Boillat S, Serrano E, Hirsch Hadorn G, Wiesmann U (2010) Researchers’ roles in knowledge co-production: experience from sustainability research in Kenya, Switzerland, Bolivia and Nepal. Sci Public Policy 37:267–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pretty J, Adams B, Berkes F, Ferreira de Athayde S, Dudley N, Hunn E, Maffi L, Milton K, Rapport D, Robbins P, Sterling E, Stolton S, Tsing A, Vintinner E (2009) The intersections of biological diversity and cultural diversity: towards integration. Conserv Soc 7(2):100–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ray C (1999a) Endogenous development in the era of reflexive modernity. J Rural Stud 15:257–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ray C (1999b) Towards a meta-framework of endogenous development: repertoires, paths, democracy and rights. Sociol Rural 39:521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reyes-García V, Huanca T, Vadez V, Leonard WR, Wilkie D (2006) Cultural, practical, and economic value of wild plants: a quantitative study in the Bolivian Amazon. Econ Bot 60:62–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reyes-García V, Vadez V, Tanner S, Huanca T, Leonard WR, McDade T (2007) Ethnobotanical skills and clearance of tropical rain forest for agriculture: a case study in the Lowlands of Bolivia. Ambio 36:406–408Google Scholar
  77. Riester J (1993) Universo mítico de los Chimane. Hisbol, La PazGoogle Scholar
  78. Rist G (2001) Le développement: histoire d’une croyance occidentale. Presses de Sciences Polities. Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  79. Rist S (2010) Que es la materia y el espíritu y como se relacionan? Desarrollo endógeno en Bolivia. In: Viceministerio de Medio Ambiente Biodiversidad y Cambio Climático y de Gestión de Desarrollo Forestal (ed) Construcción de la Sustentabilidad desde la visión de los pueblos indígenas de Latinoamérica. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua de Bolivia, La Paz, pp 179–187Google Scholar
  80. Rist S, Dahdouh-Guebas F (2006) Ethnosciences – a step towards the integration of scientific and non-scientific forms of knowledge in the management of natural resources for the future. Environ Dev Sustain 8(4):467–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rist S, San Martín J, Tapia N (1999) Andean Cosmovision and self-sustained development. In: Haverkort B, Hiemstra W (eds) Food for thought – ancient visions and new experiments of rural people – COMPAS. Zed Books, London, pp 177–190Google Scholar
  82. Rist S, Chiddambaranathan M, Escobar C, Wiesmann U, Zimmermann A (2007) Moving from sustainable management to sustainable governance of natural resources: the role of social learning processes in rural India, Bolivia and Mali. J Rural Stud 23:23–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rist S, Boillat S, Gerritsen P, Schneider F, Mathez-Stiefel S, Tapia N (2011) Endogenous knowledge: implications for sustainable development. In: Wiesmann U (ed) with an international group of coeditors Research for Sustainable Development: Foundations, Experiences, and Perspectives. Perspectives of the Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North–South. University of Bern/Geographica Bernensia, Berne, pp 119–146Google Scholar
  84. Russell AW, Wicksona F, Carew AL (2008) Transdisciplinarity: context, contradictions and capacity. Futures 40:460–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sack RD (1987) Human territoriality and space. Graduate School of Geography/Clark University, WorcesterGoogle Scholar
  86. Schech S, Haggis J (2000) Culture and development a critical introduction. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  87. Schreurs MA (2012) Rio +20: assessing progress to date and future challenges. J Environ Dev 21(2):19–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Seeland K (1997) Nature is culture. Indigenous knowledge and sociocultural aspects of trees and forests in non-European cultures. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Sneddon C, Howarth R, Norgaard RB (2006) Sustainable development in a post-Brundtland world. Ecol Econ 57:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sunderlin WD, Hatcher DJ, Liddle M (2008) From exclusion to ownership? Challenges and opportunities in advancing forest tenure reform. Rights and Resources Initiative, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  91. Taringa N (2006) How environmental is African traditional religion? Exchange 35(2):191–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) (1992) Report of the united nations conference on environment and development. Rio de Janeiro, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), New York, 3–14 Jun 1992Google Scholar
  93. UNESCO (2005) Convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  94. van Ploeg JD, van Dijk J (1995) Beyond modernization: the impact of endogenous rural development. Van Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands, 297 ppGoogle Scholar
  95. Walker R (2003) Mapping process to pattern in the landscape change of the Amazonian Frontier. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 93:376–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) (1987) Our common future. Reprint edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. WCS (2005) Actualisacion del Plan de Manejo PL 2005–2009 (Actualized management plan PL 2005–2009). Wildlife Conservation Society, La PazGoogle Scholar
  98. Werth L, Mayer J (2008) Sozialpsychologie. Spektrum, Akademischer Verlag, DeutschlandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Development and Environment (CDE)University of BernBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Institute of International Forestry and Forest ProductsTechnische Universität DresdenTharandtGermany

Personalised recommendations