• Thomas A. Sporn
  • Victor L. Roggli


The term pneumoconiosis dates to Zenker’s 1866 description of pulmonary disease processes related to the inhalation of dusts [1]. As some dust, including asbestos fibers, may be found in the lungs of virtually all adults from the general population, pneumoconiosis now refers to the accumulation of excessive amounts of dust in the parenchyma of the lung and the pathologic response to its presence [2]. Asbestosis, the form of pneumoconiosis related to excessive amounts of asbestos fibers in the substance of the lung, is the prototype of diseases caused by inhalation of mineral fibers. Asbestos is a commercial, legal, and regulatory term, rather than a strictly mineralogical one, that encompasses a group of naturally occurring fibrous silicates whose differing physicochemical attributes confer a spectrum of pathologic properties upon their inhalation and deposition into the lung. Much has been learned from experimental models about the pathogenesis of asbestos-induced lung injury, which is reviewed in detail in Chap.  10. The reader is directed to Chap.  3 for a discussion of asbestos bodies, the histologic emblem of asbestos exposure, and a requisite component of the pathologic diagnosis of asbestosis. Chapter  11 discusses the methodology and results of quantitative tissue analysis for asbestosis, other asbestos-related diseases, as well as normal and disease control populations. The present chapter describes the morphologic features of asbestosis and relates them to the clinical and radiographic features of the disease.


Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Interstitial Fibrosis Asbestos Exposure Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Asbestos Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Zenker FA (1866) Staubinhalations Krankheiten der Lungen. Deutsch Arch für Klinische Med 2:116Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sporn TA, Roggli VL (2008) Pneumoconioses, mineral and vegetable, Ch 26. In: Tomashefski JF, Cagle PT, Farver CF, Fraire AE (eds) Dail and Hammar’s pulmonary pathology, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 911–949CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lee DHK, Selikoff IJ (1979) Historical background to the asbestos problem. Environ Res 18:300–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castleman BI (1984) Asbestos: medical and legal aspects. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Craighead JE (1988) Eyes for the epidemiologist: the pathologist’s role in shaping our understanding of the asbestos-associated diseases. Am J Clin Pathol 89:281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooke WE (1924) Fibrosis of the lungs due to the inhalation of asbestos dust. Br Med J 2:147PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooke WE (1927) Pulmonary asbestosis. Br Med J 2:1024–1025PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Roggli VL (1989) Pathology of human asbestosis: a critical review. In: Fenoglio-Preiser CM (ed) Advances in pathology, vol 2. Year Book Med. Pub, Chicago, pp 31–60Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Churg A (1998) Nonneoplastic diseases caused by asbestos, Ch 9. In: Churg A, Green FHY (eds) Pathology of occupational lung disease, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 277–339Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Murphy RL, Becklake MR, Brooks SM et al (1986) The diagnosis of non-malignant diseases related to asbestos. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:363–368Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCullough SF, Aresini G, Browne K et al (1982) Criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis and considerations in the attribution of lung cancer and mesothelioma to asbestos exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 49:357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kannerstein M, Churg J (1979) Pathology of asbestos associated diseases. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hinson KFW, Otto H, Webster I et al (1973) Criteria for the diagnosis and grading of asbestosis. In: Bogovski P (ed) Biologic effects of asbestosis. World Health Organization, LyonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Craighead JE, Abraham JL, Churg A et al (1982) The pathology of asbestos-associated diseases of the lungs and pleural cavities: diagnostic criteria and proposed grading schema (report of the pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). Arch Pathol Lab Med 106:544–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roggli VL, Gibbs AR, Attanoos R, Churg A, Popper H, Cagle P, Corrin B, Franks TJ, Galateau-Salle F, Galvin J, Hasleton PS, Henderson DW, Honma K (2010) Pathology of asbestosis – an update of diagnostic criteria. Report of the Asbestosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists and Pulmonary Pathology Society. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134: 462–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Churg A (1986) Analysis of asbestos fibers from lung tissue: research and diagnostic uses. Sem Respir Med 7:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Warnock ML, Prescott BT, Kuwahara TJ (1982) Correlation of asbestos bodies and fibers in lungs of subjects with and without asbestosis. Scan Electron Microsc 2:845–857Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sporn TA, Roggli VL (2013) Occupational lung disease. In: Flieder D, Hasleton PS (eds) Spencer’s pathology of the lung. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Edinburgh/New York, pp 512–562Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Katzenstein A-L A, Askin FB (2008) Surgical pathology of non-neoplastic lung disease, 4th edn. Saunders Elsevier, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Tomashefski JF, Cagle PT, Farver CF, Fraire AE (2008) Dail and Hammar’s pulmonary pathology, 3rd edn. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Seaton A (1984) Asbestos-related diseases, Ch 13. In: Morgan WKC, Seaton A (eds) Occupational lung diseases, 2nd edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 323–376Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beljan JR, Cooper T, Dolan WD et al (1984) A physician’s guide to asbestos-related diseases: council on scientific affairs. JAMA 252:2593–2597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Segarra F, Monte MB, Ibanez LP, Nicolas JP (1980) Asbestosis in a Barcelona fibrocement factory. Environ Res 23:292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Selikoff IJ, Lee DHK (1978) Asbestos and disease. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McMillan GHG, Pethybridge RJ, Sheers G (1980) Effect of smoking on attack rates of pulmonary and pleural lesions related to exposure to asbestos dust. Br J Ind Med 37:268–272PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kilburn KH, Lilis R, Anderson HA, Miller A, Warshaw RH (1986) Interaction of asbestos, age and cigarette smoking in producing radiographic evidence of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Med 80:377–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Finkelstein MM, Virgilis JJ (1984) Radiographic abnormalities among asbestos-cement workers: an exposure-response study. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ducatman AM, Withers BF, Yang WN (1990) Smoking and roentgenographic opacities in US Navy asbestos workers. Chest 97:810–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Barnhart S, Thornquist M, Omenn GS, Goodman G, Feigl P, Rosenstock L (1990) The degree of roentgenographic parenchymal opacities attributable to smoking among asbestos-exposed subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:1102–1106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hobson J, Gilks B, Wright J, Churg A (1988) Direct enhancement by cigarette smoke of asbestos fiber penetration and asbestos-induced epithelial proliferation in rat tracheal explants. J Natl Cancer Inst 80:518–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tron V, Wright JL, Harrison N et al (1987) Cigarette smoke makes airway and early parenchymal asbestosis worse in the guinea pig. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:271–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Churg A (1996) The uptake of mineral particles by pulmonary epithelial cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154:1124–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McFadden D, Wright J, Wiggs B, Churg A (1986) Smoking increases the penetration of asbestos fibers into airway walls. Am J Pathol 123:95–99PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Weiss W (1984) Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities. Am Rev Respir Dis 130:293–301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Churg A, Stevens B (1995) Enhanced retention of asbestos fibers in the airways of human smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:1409–1413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schwartz DA, Galvin JR, Merchant RK et al (1992) Influence of cigarette smoking on bronchoalveolar lavage cellularity in asbestos-induced lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:400–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schwartz DA, Galvin JR, Yagla SJ et al (1993) Restrictive lung function and asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis. J Clin Invest 91:2685–2692PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goff AM, Gaensler EA (1972) Asbestosis following brief exposure in cigarette filter manufacture. Respiration 29:83–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC, Seidman H (1980) Latency of asbestos disease among insulation workers in the United States and Canada. Cancer 46:2736–2740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Antao VC, Pinheiro GA, Wassell JT (2008) Asbestosis mortality in the United States: facts and predictions. Occup Environ Med 66(5):335–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bang KM, Mazurek JM, Syamlal G, Wood JM (2008) Asbestosis mortality surveillance in the United States 1970-2004. Int J Occup Environ Health 14:161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Churg AM, Green FHY (2005) Occupational lung disease, Ch 24. In: Churg AM, Myers JL, Tazelaar HD, Wright JL (eds) Thurlbeck’s pathology of the lung. Thieme, New York, pp 769–862Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Miller A, Lilis R, Godbold J et al (1992) Relationship of pulmonary function to radiographic interstitial fibrosis in 2611 long term asbestos insulators. Am Rev Respir Dis 145:263–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Begin R, Cantin A, Berthiaume Y et al (1983) Airway function in lifetime non-smoking older asbestos workers. Am J Med 75:631–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang XR, Christiani DC (2000) Respiratory symptoms and functional status in workers exposed to silica, asbestos and coal mine dust. J Occup Environ Med 42:1076–1084PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kilburn KH, Warshaw R, Thornton JC (1985) Asbestosis, pulmonary symptoms and functional impairment in shipyard workers. Chest 88:254–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sue DY, Oren A, Hansen JE, Wasserman K (1985) Lung function and exercise performance in smoking and non-smoking asbestos-exposed workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:612–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kobayashi H, Okamura A, Ohnishi Y et al (1983) Generalized fibrosis associated with pulmonary asbestosis. Acta Pathol Jpn 33:1223–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Slavin RE, Swedo D, Gonzales-Vitale JC, Osornio-Vargas A (1985) Extrapulmonary silicosis: a clinical, morphologic and ultrastructural study. Hum Pathol 16:393–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cowie RL (1987) Silica-dust exposed mine workers with scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Chest 92:260–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane JC et al (1977) Immunological studies of patients with asbestosis I. Studies of cell mediated immunity. Clin Exp Immunol 28:261–267PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kagan E, Solomon A, Cochrane JC et al (1977) Immunological studies of patients with asbestosis. II. Studies of circulating lymphoid cell numbers and humoral immunity. Clin Exp Immunol 28:268–275PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Maguire FW, Mills RC, Parker FP (1981) Immunoblastic lymphadenopathy and asbestosis. Cancer 47:791–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB (1982) Pulmonary lymphomas simulating lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 6:19–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Churg A (1983) Pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis revisited. Hum Pathol 14:868–883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cooke CT, Matz LR, Armstrong JA, Pinerua RF (1986) Asbestos-related interstitial pneumonitis associated with glomerulonephritis and lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Pathology 18:352–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Huuskonen MS (1978) Clinical features, mortality and survival of patients with asbestosis. Scand J Work Environ Health 4:265–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Courts II, Turner-Warwick M (1984) Factors predicting outcome in intrapulmonary fibrosis associated with asbestos exposure (asbestosis). In: Gee JBL, Morgan WKC (eds) Occupational lung disease. Raven Press, New York, pp 208–209Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oksa P, Klockars M, Karjalainen A, Huuskonen MS, Vattulainen K, Pukkala E, Nordman H (1998) Progression of asbestosis predicts lung cancer. Chest 113:1517–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Berry G (1981) Mortality of workers certified by pneumoconiosis reference panels as having asbestosis. Br J Ind Med 38:130–137PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Murai Y, Kitagawa M (2000) Autopsy cases of asbestosis in Japan: a statistical analysis on registered cases. Arch Environ Health 55:447–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Weiss W (1999) Asbestosis: a marker for increased risk of lung cancer among workers exposed to asbestos. Chest 115:536–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Selikoff IJ, Hammond EC, Seidman H (1979) Mortality experience of insulation workers in the United States and Canada, 1943-1976. Ann N Y Acad Sci 330:91–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    McDonald AD, McDonald JC (1980) Malignant mesothelioma in North America. Cancer 46:1650–1656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kamp DW, Weitzman SA (1999) The molecular basis of asbestos-induced lung injury. Thorax 54:638–650PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mossman BT, Churg A (1998) State of the art: mechanisms in the pathogenesis of asbestosis and silicosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:1666–1680PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Robledo R, Mossman BT (1999) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of asbestos-induced fibrosis. J Cell Physiol 180:158–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Mossman BT, Borm PJ, Castranova V, Costa DL, Donaldson K, Kleeberger SR (2007) Mechanisms of action of inhaled fibers, particles and nanoparticles in lung and cardiovascular diseases. Part Fibre Toxicol 4:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hirvonen A, Saarikoski ST, Linnainmaa K, Koskinen K, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K, Mattson K, Vaino H (1996) Glutathione S-transferase and N-acetyltransferase genotypes and asbestos-associated pulmonary disorders. J Natl Cancer Inst 88:1853–1856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kelsey KT, Nelson HH, Wiencke JK, Smith CM, Levin S (1997) The glutathione s-transferase theta and mu deletion polymorphisms in asbestosis. Am J Ind Med 31:274–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Franko A, Dodic-Fikfak M, Arneric N, Dolzan V (2007) Glutathione S-transferases GSTMA and GSTT1 polymorphisms and asbestosis. J Occup Environ Med 49:667–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Franko A, Dolzan V, Arneric N, Dodic-Fikfak M (2008) The influence of genetic polymorphisms of GSTP1 on the development of asbestosis. J Occup Environ Med 50:7–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jakobsson K, Rannug A, Alexandrie A-K, Rylander L, Albin M, Hagmar L (1994) Genetic polymorphism for glutathione-S-transferase mu in asbestos cement workers. Occup Environ Med 51:812–816PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Singhal SS, Saxena M, Ahmad H et al (1992) Glutathione S transferases of human lung: characterization and evaluation of the alpha-class isoenzymes against lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 299:232–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Roach HD, Davies GJ, Attanoos R, Crane M, Adams H, Phillips S (2002) Asbestos: when the dust settles – an imaging review of asbestos-related disease. Radiographics 22:S167–S184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Aberle DR, Gamsu G, Ray CS, Feuerstein IM (1988) Asbestos-related pleural and parenchymal fibrosis: detection with high resolution CT. Radiology 166:729–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Friedman AC, Fiel SB, Fisher MS, Radecki PD, Lev-Toaff AS, Caroline DF (1988) Asbestos-related pleural disease and asbestosis: a comparison of CT and chest radiography. Am J Roentgenol 150:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    International Labour Organization (2002) International classification of radiographs of the pneumoconioses, vol 22, Occupational safety and health series. ILO, Geneva (rev 2000)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    American Thoracic Society (1986) The diagnosis of non-malignant diseases related to asbestos. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:363–368Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    American Thoracic Society (2004) Diagnosis and initial management of nonmalignant diseases related to asbestos. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 170:691–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    De Vuyst P, Dumortier P, Moulin E, Yourassowsky N, Yernault JC (1987) Diagnostic value of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am Rev Respir Dis 134:363–368Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Parkes WR (1994) An approach to the differential diagnosis of asbestosis and non-occupational diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In: Parkes WR III (ed) Occupational lung disorders, 3rd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 505–535Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gaensler EA, Jederlinic PJ, Churg A (1991) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:689–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hillerdal G (1982) Asbestos exposure and upper lobe involvement. Am J Roentgenol 139:1163–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hillerdal G (1980) Pleural plaques: occurrence, exposure to asbestos and clinical importance. Acta Univ Upsaliensis 363:1–227Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wain SL, Roggli VL, Foster WL (1984) Parietal pleural plaques, asbestos bodies and neoplasia: a clinical, pathologic and roentgenographic correlation of 25 consecutive cases. Chest 86:707–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Franzblau A, Lilis R (1987) The diagnosis of non-malignant diseases related to asbestos. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:790–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pratt PC (1994) Emphysema and chronic airways disease, Ch 26. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP (eds) Pulmonary pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 847–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Teschler H, Friedrichs KH, Hoheisel GB et al (1994) Asbestos fibers in bronchoalveolar lavage and lung tissue of former asbestos workers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:614–645CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Schwartz DA, Galvin JR, Burmeister LF et al (1991) The clinical utility and reliability of asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar fluid. Am Rev Respir Dis 144:684–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hunninghake GW, Gadek JE, Kawanami O, Ferrans VJ, Crystal RG (1979) Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Pathol 97:149–205PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Henderson DW, Rantanen J, Barnhart S, Dement JM, De Vuyst P et al (1997) Asbestos, asbestosis and cancer: the Helsinki criteria for diagnosis and attribution. A consensus report of an international expert group. Scand J Work Environ Health 23:311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Vorwald AJ, Durkan TM, Pratt PC (1951) Experimental studies of asbestosis. Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 3:1–43Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hammar SP, Dodson RF (1994) Asbestos, Ch 28. In: Hammar SP, Dail DH (eds) Pulmonary pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 901–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Vincent JH, Jones AD, Johnston AM, McMillan C, Bolton RE, Cowie H (1987) Accumulation of inhaled mineral dust in the lung and associated lymph nodes: implications for exposure and dose in occupational lung disease. Ann Occup Hyg 31:375–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Roggli VL, Benning TL (1990) Asbestos bodies in pulmonary hilar lymph nodes. Mod Pathol 3:513–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kuhn C, Kuo T-T (1973) Cytoplasmic hyaline in asbestosis: a reaction of injured alveolar epithelium. Arch Pathol 95:190–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Warnock ML, Press M, Churg A (1980) Further observations on cytoplasmic hyaline in the lung. Hum Pathol 11:59–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Joines RA, Roggli VL (1989) Dendriform pulmonary ossification: report of two cases with unique findings. Am J Clin Pathol 91:398–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Ndimbie OK, Williams CR, Lee MW (1987) Dendriform pulmonary ossification. Arch Pathol Lab Med 111:1062–1064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Koss MN, Johnson FB, Hochholzer L (1981) Pulmonary blue bodies. Hum Pathol 12:258–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Brody AR, Hill LH (1982) Interstitial accumulation of inhaled chrysotile asbestos and consequent formation of microcalcifications. Am J Pathol 109:107–114PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kagan E (1985) Current perspectives in asbestosis. Ann Allergy 54:464–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hillerdal G, Hecksher T (1982) Asbestos exposure and aspergillus infection. Eur J Respir Dis 63:420–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Shelburne JD, Wisseman CL, Broda KR, Roggli VL, Ingram P (1983) Lung- non-neoplastic conditions. In: Trump BF, Jones RJ (eds) Diagnostic electron microscopy, vol 4. Wiley, New York, pp 475–538Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Corrin B, Dewar A, Rodriguez–Roisin R, Turner-Warwick M (1985) Fine structural changes in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and asbestosis. J Pathol 147:107–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Craighead JE, Kleinerman J, Abraham JL et al (1988) Diseases associated with exposure to silica and nonfibrous silicate minerals. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112:673–720Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mark GJ, Monroe CB, Kazemi H (1979) Mixed pneumoconiosis: silicosis, asbestosis, talcosis and berylliosis. Chest 75:726–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gal A (1994) Iatrogenic injury: radiation and drug effects, Ch 23. In: Hammar SP, Dail DH (eds) Pulmonary pathology, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 779–806Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kane PB, Goldman SL, Pillai BH, Bergofsky EH (1977) Diagnosis of asbestosis by transbronchial biopsy: a method to facilitate demonstration of ferruginous bodies. Am Rev Respir Dis 115:689–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Dodson RF, Hurst GA, Williams MG, Corn C, Greenberg SD (1988) Comparison of light and electron microscopy for defining occupational asbestos exposure in transbronchial lung biopsies. Chest 94:366–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Churg A (1983) An inflation procedure for open lung biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol 7:69–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Roggli VL, Pratt PC (1983) Numbers of asbestos bodies on iron-stained tissue sections in relation to asbestos body counts in lung tissue digests. Hum Pathol 14:355–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Vollmer RT, Roggli VL (1985) Asbestos body concentrations in human lung: predictions from asbestos body counts in tissue sections with a mathematical model. Hum Pathol 16:713–718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Becklake MR (1984) Asbestosis criteria. Arch Pathol Lab Med 108:93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Dodson RF, Williams MG, O’Sullivan MF, Corn CJ, Greenberg SD, Hurst GA (1985) A comparison of the ferruginous body and uncoated fiber content in the lungs of former asbestos workers. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Warnock ML, Wolery G (1987) Asbestos bodies or fibers and the diagnosis of asbestosis. Environ Res 44:29–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Holden J, Churg A (1986) Asbestos bodies and the diagnosis of asbestosis in chrysotile workers. Environ Res 39:232–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Roggli VL (1991) Scanning electron microscopic analysis of mineral fiber content of lung tissue in the evaluation of diffuse pulmonary fibrosis. Scanning Microsc 5:71–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Schneider F, Sporn TA, Roggli VL (2010) Asbestos fiber content of lungs with diffuse interstitial fibrosis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 134:457–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Davis JMG, Beckett ST, Bolton RE, Collins P, Middleton AP (1978) Mass and number of fibres in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung disease in rats. Br J Cancer 37:673–688PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Crapo JD, Barry BE, Brody AR, O’Neil JJ (1980) Morphological, morphometric, and X-ray microanalytical studies on lung tissue of rats exposed to chrysotile asbestos in inhalation chambers. In: Wagner JC (ed) Biological effects of mineral fibers, vol 1. IARC Scientific Publications No. 30, Lyon, pp 273–280Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lee KP, Barras CE, Griffith FD, Waritz RS, Lapin CA (1981) Comparative pulmonary responses to inhaled inorganic fibers with asbestos and fiberglass. Environ Res 24:167–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Gross P (1974) Is short-fibered asbestos a biological hazard? Arch Environ Health 29:115–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Report and recommendations of the working group on asbestosis and cancer (1965) Br J Ind Med 22:165–171Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Warnock ML, Kuwahara TJ, Wolery G (1983) The relationship of asbestos burden to asbestosis and lung cancer. Pathol Annu 18(part 2):109–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wagner JC, Moncrief CB, Coles R et al (1986) Correlation between fibre content of the lungs and disease in naval dockyard workers. Br J Ind Med 43:391–395PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Davis JMG (1984) The pathology of asbestos-related disease. Thorax 39:801–808PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Butnor KJ, Roggli VL (2011) Pneumoconioses, Ch 9. In: Leslie KO, Wick MR (eds) Practical pulmonary pathology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 311–337Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyDuke Clinics-Duke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations