Ranking Machine Translation Systems via Post-editing
In this paper we investigate ways in which information from the post-editing of machine translations can be used to rank translation systems for quality. In addition to the commonly used edit distance between the raw translation and its edited version, we consider post-editing time and keystroke logging, since these can account not only for technical effort, but also cognitive effort. In this system ranking scenario, post-editing poses some important challenges: i) multiple post-editors are required since having the same annotator fixing alternative translations of a given input segment can bias their post-editing; ii) achieving high enough inter-annotator agreement requires extensive training, which is not always feasible; iii) there exists a natural variation among post-editors, particularly w.r.t. editing time and keystrokes, which makes their measurements less directly comparable. Our experiments involve untrained human annotators, but we propose ways to normalise their post-editing effort indicators to make them comparable. We test these methods using a standard dataset from a machine translation evaluation campaign and show that they yield reliable rankings of systems.
Keywordsmachine translation evaluation
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