BinCam: Designing for Engagement with Facebook for Behavior Change

  • Rob Comber
  • Anja Thieme
  • Ashur Rafiev
  • Nick Taylor
  • Nicole Krämer
  • Patrick Olivier
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8118)


In this paper we continue work to investigate how we can engage young adults in behaviors of recycling and the prevention of food waste through social media and persuasive and ubiquitous computing systems. Our previous work with BinCam, a two-part design combining a system for the collection of waste-related behaviors with a Facebook application, suggested that although this ubiquitous system could raise awareness of recycling behavior, engagement with social media remained low. In this paper we reconsider our design in terms of engagement, examining both the theoretical and practical ways in which engagement can be designed for. This paper presents findings from a new user study exploring the re-design of the social media interface following this analysis. By incorporating elements of gamification, social support and improved data visualization, we contribute insights on the relative potential of these techniques to engage individuals across the lifespan of a system’s deployment.


Engagement Facebook Sustainability Recycling Gamification Social influence Persuasive technology 


  1. 1.
    Astin, A.: Student involvement: a developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel 25(4), 297–308 (1984)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bødker, S.: When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges. In: Proc. NordicCHI 2006, pp. 1–8. ACM Press (2006)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brynjarsdottir, H., et al.: Sustainably unpersuaded: how persuasion narrows our vision of sustainability. In: Proc. CHI 2012, pp. 947–956. ACM Press (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Comber, R., Thieme, A.: Designing beyond habit: opening space for improved recycling and food waste behaviors through processes of persuasion, social influence and aversive affect. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing (online first)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Consolvo, S., McDonald, D.W., Landay, J.A.: Theory-driven design strategies for technologies that support behavior change in everyday life. In: Proc. CHI 2009, pp. 405–414. ACM Press (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Finding Flow: The Psychology Of Engagement With Everyday Life. Basic Books (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Deterding, S., et al.: From game design elements to gamefulness: defining “gamification”. In: Proc. MindTrek 2011, pp. 9–15. ACM Press (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Deutsch, M., Gerard, H.G.: A study of normative and informational social influence upon individual judgment. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 51, 629–636 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dewey, J.: How we think. Dover Publications (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    DiSalvo, C., Sengers, P., Brynjarsdóttir, H.: Mapping the landscape of sustainable HCI. In: Proc. CHI 2010, pp. 1975–1984. ACM Press (1984)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doherty, G., Colye, D., Sharry, J.: Engagement with online mental health interventions: An exploratory study of a treatment for depression. In: Proc. CHI 2012, pp. 1421–1430. ACM Press (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ellison, N.B., Steinfield, C., Lampe, C.: The benefits of Facebook “friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 12, 1143–1168 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fogg, B.J.: A behavioral model for persuasive design. In: Proc. Persuasive 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fogg, B.J.: Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Morgan Kaufmann (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Foster, D., et al.: Wattsup?: motivating reductions in domestic energy consumption using social networks. In: Proc. NordiCHI 2010, pp. 178–187 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fröhlich, J., et al.: UbiGreen: Investigating a mobile tool for tracking and supporting green transportation habits. In: Proc. CHI 2009, pp. 1043–1052. ACM Press (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fröhlich, J., Findlater, L., Landay, J.: The Design of Eco-Feedback Technology. In: Proc. CHI 2010, pp. 1999–2008. ACM Press (2008)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gartland, A., Piasek, P.: Weigh your waste: A sustainable way to reduce waste. In: Ext. Abst. CHI 2009, pp. 2853–2858. ACM Press (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hartmann, T., Klimmt, C.: Gender and Computer Games: Exploring Females’ Dislikes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 11(4), 910–931 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holmes, T.: Eco-visualization: Combining art and technology to reduce energy consumption. In: Proc. C&C, pp. 153–162 (2007)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jamison-Powell, S., et al.: I can’t get no sleep": discussing #insomnia on twitter. In: Proc. CHI 2012, pp. 1501–1510. ACM Press (2012)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jianqiang, D.S., et al.: Farmer’s Tale: A facebook game to promote volunteerism. In: Proc. CHI 2011, pp. 581–584. ACM Press (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kirman, B., et al.: Improving social game engagement on facebook through enhanced socio-contextual information. In: Proc. CHI 2010, pp. 1753–1756 (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lehmann, J., Lalmas, M., Yom-Tov, E., Dupret, G.: Models of user engagement. In: Masthoff, J., Mobasher, B., Desmarais, M.C., Nkambou, R. (eds.) UMAP 2012. LNCS, vol. 7379, pp. 164–175. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li, I., Dey, A.K., Forlizzi, J.A.: Stage-Based Model of Personal Informatics Systems. In: Proc. CHI 2010, pp. 557–566. ACM Press (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu, Y., Alexandrova, T., Nakajima, T.: Gamifying intelligent environments. In: Proc. Ubi-MUI 2011, pp. 7–12. ACM Press (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mankoff, J.C., Matthews, D., Fussell, S.R., Johnson, M.: Leveraging social networks to motivate individuals to reduce their ecological footprints. In: Proc. of HICSS, pp. 1–10 (2007)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCarthy, J., Wright, P., Wallace, J.: The experience of enchantment in human – computer interaction. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 10, 369–378 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peters, C., Castellano, G., de Freitas, S.: An exploration of user engagement in HCI. Proc. AFFINE 9(3) (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shiraishi, M., et al.: Using individual, social and economic persuasion techniques to reduce CO2 emissions in a family setting. In: Proc. Persuasive 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Strengers, Y.: Designing eco-feedback systems for everyday life. In: Proc. CHI 2011, pp. 2135–2144 (2011)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thieme, A., Comber, R., et al.: “We’ve bin watching you.”: designing for reflection and social persuasion to promote sustainable lifestyles. In: Proc. CHI 2012, pp. 2337–2247. ACM Press (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thieme, A., et al.: Lovers’ box: Designing for reflection within romantic relationships. International Journal of Human Computer Studies 69(5), 283–297 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Thom, J., Millen, D., DiMicco, J.: Removing gamification from an enterprise SNS. In: Proc. CSCW 2012, pp. 1067–1070. ACM Press (2012)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    WRAP. Waste and resources action programme, (accessed December 29, 2010)
  36. 36.
    Zhong, B., Hardin, M., Sun, T.: Less effortful thinking leads to more social networking? The associations between the use of social network sites and personality traits. Computers in Human Behavior 27(3), 1265–1271 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rob Comber
    • 1
  • Anja Thieme
    • 1
  • Ashur Rafiev
    • 1
  • Nick Taylor
    • 1
  • Nicole Krämer
    • 2
  • Patrick Olivier
    • 1
  1. 1.Culture LabNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  2. 2.Social Psychology: Media and CommunicationUniversity of Duisburg-EssenGermany

Personalised recommendations