One Alternation Can Be More Powerful Than Randomization in Small and Fast Two-Way Finite Automata
We show a family of languages that can be recognized by a family of linear-size alternating one-way finite automata with one alternation but cannot be recognized by any family of polynomial-size bounded-error two-way probabilistic finite automata with the expected runtime bounded by a polynomial. In terms of finite automata complexity theory this means that neither 1Σ2 nor 1Π2 is contained in 2P 2.
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