Advertisement

Airtime Ping-Pong Effect in IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks

  • Mohamed Riduan Abid
  • Saâd Biaz
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7853)

Abstract

Airtime is set as the default routing metric for the ongoing IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking standard. The metric is designed to minimize channel resource consumption by accounting for loss rate, bandwidth, and channel characteristics. However, the metric exhibits a noticeable ping-pong effect whose nature is still vague, and the very few references to this in the literature condemn it for being a perilous behavior.

In this paper, we present a thorough study of the Airtime ping-pong effect, and highlight its correlation to the underlying rate control algorithms. Using different rate control algorithms (e.g., ARF, AARF, ONOE, AMRR and Constant rate), we establish that transmission rate adaptation is the principal cause behind the effect. We show that the effect is an inherent behavior, and that an accurate characterization of it can help improve network performance.

We present a ping-pong-aware mechanism that, by detecting when a link undergoes such an effect, adapts the routing protocol for better network performance. The mechanism is O(1), decentralized, and can be easily integrated into the IEEE 802.11s routing protocol.

Keywords

Wireless mesh networks IEEE 802.11s Airtime Hybrid wireless mesh protocol Routing Adaptive rate control algorithms 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [Ba1]
    Bahr, M.: Update on the Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol of IEEE 802.11s. In: IEEE Conference on Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems, pp. 1–6 (2007)Google Scholar
  2. [Ba2]
    Bahr, M.: Proposed Routing for IEEE 802.11s WLAN Mesh Networks. In: The 2nd Annual International Wireless Internet Conference, WICON, pp. 6–13 (2006)Google Scholar
  3. [On1]
    Online: The ns-3 network simulator, http://www.nsnam.org/
  4. [Ie1]
    IEEE TGs: Status of Project IEEE 802.11s (2011), http://www.ieee802.org/11/Reports/tgs_update.htm
  5. [AS1]
    Aoki, H., Shinji, T., Kengo, Y., Akira, Y.: IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Network Technology. IEEE NTT DoCoMo Technical Journal 8, 13–21 (2006)Google Scholar
  6. [PR1]
    Perkins, C., Royer, E.: Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing. In: The 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, WMCSA, pp. 90–100 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. [RC1]
    Raniwala, A., Chiueh, T.: Architecture and Algorithms for an 802.11-Based Multi-Channel Wireless Mesh Network. In: Proc. of IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 3, pp. 2223–2234 (2005)Google Scholar
  8. [CA1]
    De Couto, D., Aguayo, D., Bicket, J., Morris, R.: High-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing. In: ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, MOBICOM, pp. 134–146 (2003)Google Scholar
  9. [GG1]
    Garroppo, R., Giordano, S., Iacono, D., Tavanti, L.: Notes on implementing a IEEE 802.11s mesh point. Elsevier Computer Communications 33, 336–349 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [AW1]
    Akyildiz, F., Wang, W.: Wireless mesh networks: a survey. Computer Networks and ISDN Systems 47, 445–487 (2005)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. [DP1]
    Draves, R., Padhye, J., Zill, B.: Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks. MOBICOM. In: ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 114–128 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. [OT1]
    Orgier, R., Templin, F., Lewis, M.: Topology dissemination based on reverse-path forwarding (TBRPF). RFC 3684. IETF (2004)Google Scholar
  13. [BW1]
    Biaz, S., Wu, S.: Rate adaptation algorithms for IEEE 802.11 networks: A survey and comparison. In: IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, pp. 130–136 (2008)Google Scholar
  14. [KM1]
    Kamerman, A., Monteban, L.: WaveLAN II: A high-performance wireless LAN for the unlicensed band. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 118–133 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. [LM1]
    Lacage, M., Manshaei, M., Turletti, M.: IEEE 802.11 Rate Adaptation: A Practical Approach. In: Proc. of the 7th ACM International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, pp. 126–134 (2004)Google Scholar
  16. [Ma1]
    Madwifi: The Madwifi Project, http://sourceforge.net/projects/madwifi

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Riduan Abid
    • 1
  • Saâd Biaz
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Science and EngineeringAlakhawayn University in IfraneIfraneMorocco
  2. 2.Computer Science and Software Engineering Department, Shelby Center for Engineering TechnologyAuburn UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations