Review of Trends and Challenges in Smart Grids: An Automation Point of View

  • Thomas Strasser
  • Filip Andrén
  • Munir Merdan
  • Alexander Prostejovsky
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8062)

Abstract

Low-carbon and energy efficient technologies are seen as key enablers to reduce the green-house gas emissions and to limit the global warming. The large scale penetration of distributed energy resources from renewables seems to be a very promising approach. In order to cope with the fluctuating nature of such energy resources an intelligent integration in today’s electric energy infrastructure is necessary. Such intelligent power networks—called Smart Grids—tend to have a higher complexity compared to the traditional infrastructure. They need advanced control approaches in order to be manageable. The development of more sophisticated information, communication and automation technologies and control algorithms are in the focus of the research community today in order to master the higher complexity of Smart Grid systems. This paper provides a review of automation trends and challenges for the future electric energy infrastructure with focus on advanced concepts using artificial intelligence and multi-agent systems. Moreover, most important standards and common rules are also discussed in order to satisfy interoperability issues in such a distributed environment.

Keywords

Distributed Energy Resources Information and Communication Technology Multi-agent Systems Power Utility Automation Renewable Energy Sources Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Smart Grids Standards 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    IEA: World Energy Outlook 2012. Technical report, Int. Energy Ag., IEA (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    IEA: Smart grid insights. Technical report, Int. Energy Agency, IEA (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amin, S., Wollenberg, B.: Toward a smart grid: power delivery for the 21st century. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 3(5), 34–41 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farhangi, H.: The path of the smart grid. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 8(1), 18–28 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    European Commission, et al.: European SmartGrids technology platform: vision and strategy for Europe’s electricity networks of the future. In: Directorate-General for Research-Sustainable Energy Systems (2006)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bouhouras, A., Andreou, G., Labridis, D., Bakirtzis, A.: Selective Automation Upgrade in Distribution Networks Towards a Smarter Grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 1(3), 278–285 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Merdan, M., Lepuschitz, W., Strasser, T., Andrén, F.: Multi-Agent system for self-optimizing power distribution grids. In: 2011 5th International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Applications, ICARA (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    EC: M/490 Standardization Mandate to European Standardisation Organisations (ESOs) to support European Smart Grid deployment. Technical report, European Commission (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    McArthur, S., Davidson, E., Catterson, V., Dimeas, A., Hatziargyriou, N., Ponci, F., Funabashi, T.: Multi-Agent Systems for Power Engineering Applications—Part I: Concepts, Approaches, and Technical Challenges. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 22(4), 1743–1752 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solanki, J., Khushalani, S., Schulz, N.: A Multi-Agent Solution to Distribution Systems Restoration. IEEE Trans. on Power Systems 22(3), 1026–1034 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jennings, N., Bussmann, S.: Agent-based control systems: Why are they suited to engineering complex systems? IEEE Control Systems 23(3), 61–73 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moslehi, K., Kumar, R.: A reliability perspective of the smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 1(1), 57–64 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jung, J., Liu, C.C.: Multi-agent system technologies and an application for power system vulnerability. In: 2003 IEEE Power Eng. Society General Meeting (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tsai, M.S., Piclova, P., Wu, W.C., Chan, C.K.: Development of a novel multi-agent based self-healing distribution systems. In: Proceedings of the Fourth IASTED International Conference. Number 606/037 (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cristaldi, L., Monti, A., Ottoboni, R., Ponci, F.: Multiagent based power systems monitoring platform: a prototype. In: 2003 IEEE Power Tech Conference (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vytelingum, P., Voice, T.D., Ramchurn, S.D., Rogers, A., Jennings, N.R.: Intelligent agents for the smart grid. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, vol. 1. International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dimeas, A., Hatziargyriou, N.: Design of a MAS for an Island System. In: 2007 Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems Applications to Power Systems (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nguyen, P., Kling, W., Myrzik, J.M.A.: Promising concepts and technologies for future power delivery systems. In: 2007 42nd International Conference on Universities Power Engineering (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rehtanz, C.: Autonomous systems and intelligent agents in power system control and operation. Springer (2003)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dimeas, A., Hatziargyriou, N.: A MAS architecture for microgrids control. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Phillips, L.R., Weiland, L., Smith, R.B., Link, H.E.: Agent-based control of distributed infrastructure resources (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hossack, J., McArthur, S.D.J., McDonald, J., Stokoe, J., Cumming, T.: A multi-agent approach to power system disturbance diagnosis. In: Fifth Int. Conference on Power System Management and Control (Conf. Publ. No. 488) (2002)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    McArthur, S.D.J., Davidson, E., Hossack, J., McDonald, J.: Automating power system fault diagnosis through multi-agent system technology. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (2004)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu, L., Logan, K.P., Cartes, D., Srivastava, S.: Fault Detection, Diagnostics, and Prognostics: Software Agent Solutions. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 56(4), 1613–1622 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Huang, K., Srivastava, S., Cartes, D., Liu, L.: Agent Solutions for Navy Shipboard Power Systems. In: IEEE International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, SoSE 2007 (2007)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Solanki, J., Schulz, N., Gao, W.: Reconfiguration for restoration of power systems using a multi-agent system. In: Proceedings of the 37th Annual North American Power Symposium (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chouhan, S., Wan, H., Lai, H., Feliachi, A., Choudhry, M.: Intelligent reconfiguration of smart distribution network using multi-agent technology. In: IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, PES 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Qing Sheng, S., Cao, Y., Yao, Y.: Distribution Network Reconfiguration Based on Particle Swarm Optimization and Chaos Searching. In: Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, APPEEC 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ganguly, S., Sahoo, N., Das, D.: Multi-objective planning of electrical distribution systems using particle swarm optimization. In: International Conference on Electric Power and Energy Conversion Systems, EPECS 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ren, P., Li, N., Gao, L.: Optimal planning of high-voltage transmission network using the chaotic particle swarm optimization. In: 2010 Chinese Control and Decision Conference, CCDC (2010)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Moustafa, Y., Amer, A.H., Mansour, M., Temraz, H., Madeour, M.: An artificial neural network for optimum topology in distribution expansion planning. In: Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (1996)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xianbo, K., Weixin, G.: A New Algorithm for Distribution Network Planning. In: Int. Conf. on Power System Technology, PowerCon 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Specht, M., Rohjans, S., Trefke, J., Uslar, M., Gonzâlez, J.M.: International Smart Grid Roadmaps and their Assessment. EAI Endorsed Transactions on Energy Web 13(1-6) (2013)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gungor, V., Sahin, D., Kocak, T., Ergut, S., Buccella, C., Cecati, C., Hancke, G.: Smart Grid Technologies: Communication Technologies and Standards. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 7(4), 529–539 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    SMB Smart Grid Strategic Group (SG3): IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap. Technical Report Ed. 1.0, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Geneva, Switzerland (June 2010)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    NIST: NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards. Technical Report NIST Special Publication 1108, National Institute of Standards and Technology - U.S. Department of Commerce, USA (2010)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    DKE: The German Standardisation Roadmap E-Energy/Smart Grid. Technical report, German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE, Frankfurt, Germany (2010)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    IEEE: IEEE Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS), End-Use Applications, and Loads. Technical Report 2030-2011, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), New York, USA (October 2011)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mahnke, W., Leitner, S.H., Damm, M.: OPC unified architecture. Springer (2009)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rohjans, S., Uslar, M., Appelrath, H.: OPC UA and CIM: Semantics for the smart grid. In: 2010 IEEE PES Trans. and Distr. Conference and Exposition (2010)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sucic, S., Bony, B., Guise, L., Jammes, F., Marusic, A.: Integrating DPWS and OPC UA device-level SOA features into IEC 61850 applications. In: IECON 2012 - 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (2012)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    GWAC: GridWise Interoperability Context—Setting Framework. Technical report, The GridWise Architecture Council, GWAC (2008)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gawlik, W.: From Smart Grid to Universal Grid–Generation, Storage and Communication in Hybrid Networks. In: 3rd ComForEn (2012)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Uslar, M., Andrén, F., Mahnke, W., Rohjans, S., Stifter, M., Strasser, T.: Hybrid grids: ICT-based integration of electric power and gas grids - A standards perspective. In: 2012 3rd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies, ISGT Europe (2012)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Bredillet, P., Lambert, E., Schultz, E.: CIM, 61850, COSEM standards used in a model driven integration approach to build the smart grid service oriented architecture. In: 2010 First IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), pp. 467–471. IEEE (October 2010)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Andrén, F., Stifter, M., Strasser, T.: Towards a Semantic Driven Framework for Smart Grid Applications: Model-Driven Development Using CIM, IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. Informatik-Spektrum, 1–11 (2012)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kienesberger, G., Meisel, M., Adegbite, A.: A comprehensive information platform for the smart grid. In: AFRICON (2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Strasser
    • 1
  • Filip Andrén
    • 1
  • Munir Merdan
    • 1
  • Alexander Prostejovsky
    • 2
  1. 1.Energy DepartmentAIT Austrian Institute of TechnologyViennaAustria
  2. 2.Automation and Control Institute (ACIN)Vienna University of TechnologyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations