Evaluating Distraction and Disengagement of Attention from the Road

  • Valentine Nwakacha
  • Andy Crabtree
  • Gary Burnett
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8022)


Drivers use sat nav for navigation assistance but research links sat nav with risk of distraction [10]. Visual and cognitive workload can be increased as drivers divert their attention from the road [1, 8]. Mitigating such risks is vital and head-up displays (HUDs) can be beneficial [9]. HUDs present images on the windshield to reduce diversion of drivers’ attention from the road. This paper presents a driving simulator experiment which examined how 30 participants behaved with three navigation interfaces; novel virtual car HUD, arrow HUD and sat nav to outline potential benefits of the virtual car HUD over the arrow HUD and sat nav. Distraction-related data (speed, headway, lane position and peripheral detection) were gathered. The findings showed participants were better at navigation performance and peripheral detection with the virtual car HUD. Subjective data showed participants rated the virtual car HUD easiest to use, least distracting and most preferred interface.


Driver distraction head-up display user interface design 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bach, K.M., Jaeger, M., Skov, M.B., Thomassen, N.G.: Interacting with invehicle systems: Understanding, measuring and evaluating attention. In: Proc. of the 23rd British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: Celebrating People and Technology, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 453–462 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown, I.: Driver Fatigue in Human Factors. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 36(2), 298–314 (1994)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chao, C.W., Huang, C.H., Doong, J.L.: See-Through Head-up Display of In-Vehicle Information Systems for Vision Enhancement. In: 3 rd International Association of Societies of Design Research, Seoul, South Korea, pp. 877–886 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Farber, E., Foley, J., Scott, S.: Visual attention design limits for ITS in-vehicle systems: The Society of Automotive Engineers standard for limiting visual distraction while driving. In: Transportation Research Board Annual General Meeting, Washington DC, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Keith, O., Burnett, G.: Learning-oriented Vehicle Navigation Systems: A Preliminary Investigation in a Driving Simulator. In: Proc. of the 10th International Conference on Human computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 119–126 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mancero, G., Wong, W., Amaldi, P.: Looking but not seeing: Implications for HCI. In: Proc. of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics, London, UK, pp. 167–174 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pettit, M., Burnett, G., Stevens, A.: Defining driver distraction. In: 12th World Congress on Intelligent transport systems, San Francisco, USA, pp. 1–12 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wu, W., Blaicher, F., Yang, J., Seder, T., Cui, D.: A prototype of landmark-based car navigation using a full-windshield head-up display system. In: Proc. of the 2009 Workshop on Ambient Media Computing, Beijing, China, pp. 21–28 (2009)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Young, K., Regan, M., Hammer, M.: Driver distraction: A review of the literature. Monash University Accident Research Centre - Report #206 (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentine Nwakacha
    • 1
  • Andy Crabtree
    • 1
  • Gary Burnett
    • 2
  1. 1.Mixed Reality LaboratoryUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Human Factors Research GroupUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations