Well-Being’s Predictive Value

A Gamified Approach to Managing Smart Communities
  • Margeret Hall
  • Simon Caton
  • Christof Weinhardt
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8029)


Well-being is a multifaceted concept, having intellectual origins in philosophy, psychology, economics, political science, and other disciplines. Its presence is correlated with a variety of institutional and business critical indicators. To date, methods to assess well-being are performed infrequently and superficially; resulting in highly aggregated observations. In this paper, we present well-being as a predictive entity for the management of a smart community. Our vision is a low latency method for the observation and measurement of well-being within a community or institution that enables different resolutions of data, e.g. at the level of an individual, a social or demographic group, or an institution. Using well-being in this manner enables realistic, faster and less expensive data collection in a smart system. However, as the data needed for assessing well-being is highly sensitive personal information, constituents require incentives and familiar settings to reveal this information, which we establish with Facebook and gamification. To evaluate the predictive value of well-being, we conducted a series of surveys to observe different self-reported psychological aspects of participants. Our key findings were that neuroticism and extroversion seem to have the highest predictive value of self-reported well-being levels. This information can be used to create expected trends of well-being for smart community management.


Smart community management well-being social computing gamification human flourishing 


  1. 1.
    Diener, E., Suh, E.: Measuring quality of life: Economic, social, and subjective indicators. Social Indicators Research 40, 189–216 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Waterman, A.S.: Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudemonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(4), 678–691 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan, R.M., Deci, E.L.: On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudemonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology 52, 141–166 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Samman, E.: Psychological and Subjective Well-being: A Proposal for Internationally Comparable Indicators. Oxford Development Studies 35(4), 459–486 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Frey, B., Stutzer, A.: Happiness and Economics: How the Economy and Institutions Affect Human Well-Being. Princeton UP, New Jersey (2001)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Veenhoven, R., Jonkers, T.: Conditions of happiness, vol. 2. D. Reidel, Dordrecht (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Filos, E.: Smart Organizations in the Digital Age. In: Mezgar, I. (ed.) Integration of ICT in Smart Organizations, pp. 187–256. Idea Group Publishing, Hershey (2006), doi:10.4018/978-1-59140-390-6.ch007Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hall, M., Kimbrough, S.O., Haas, C., Weinhardt, C., Caton, S.: Towards the gamification of well-being measures. In: 2012 IEEE 8th International Conference on E-Science (e-Science), pp. 1–8 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Huppert, F., So, T.: Flourishing Across Europe: Application of a New Conceptual Framework for Defining Well-Being. Social Indicators Research, 1–25 (2012),
  10. 10.
    Diener, E., Chan, M.: Happy People Live Longer: Subjective Well-Being Contributes to Health and Longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being 3(1), 1–43 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Danner, D.D., Snowdon, D.A., Friesen, W.V.: Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80, 804–813 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chida, Y., Steptoe, A.: Positive psychological well-being and mortality: a quantitative review of prospective observational studies. Psychosomatic Medicine 70, 741–756 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bray, I., Gunnell, D.: Suicide rates, life satisfaction and happiness as markers for population mental health. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 41, 333–337 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., Keyes, C.L.: Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: a review of the Gallup studies. In: Flourishing: The Positive Person and the Good Life, pp. 205–224. American Psychological Association Press, Washington, D.C (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cascio, W.F.: Managing human resources: Productivity, quality of work life, profits, 6th edn. McGrawHill/Irwin, Burr Ridge (2003)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frey, B., Stutzer, A.: Should National Happiness be Maximized? Working Paper No. 306 IEER, Zurich (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ahn, S.H., Choi, Y.J., Kim, Y.: Static Numbers to Dynamic Statistics: Designing a Policy-friendly Social Policy Indicator Network. Social Indicators Research 108(3), 387–400 (2011), doi:10.1007/s11205-011-9875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kahneman, D., Krueger, A.B., Schkade, D.A., Schwartz, N., Stone, A.S.: A Survey Method for Characterizing Daily Life Experience: The Daily Reconstruction Method, vol. 306, pp. 1776–1780 (2004)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Killingsworth, M.: Track Your Happiness (2013),
  20. 20.
    Kroll, C., Pokutta, S.: Just a perfect day: Developing a happiness optimised day schedule. Journal of Economic Psychology (2012), doi:
  21. 21.
    Deterding, S., Khaled, R., Nacke, L.E., Dixon, D.: Gamification: Toward a Definition. Paper presented at CHI 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada (2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Antin, J., Churchill, E.F.: Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective. Paper presented at CHI 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vassileva, J.: Motivating participation in social computing applications: a user modeling perspective. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 22, 177–201 (2012), doi:10.1007/s11257-011-9109-5MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    McGonigal, J., Gaming can make a better world (2010), TED Talk:
  25. 25.
    Huotari, K., Hamari, J.: Defining Gamification - A Service Marketing Perspective. In: Proceedings of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, Tampere, Finland (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Davies, J.: Towards a Theory of Revolution. American Sociological Review 27(1), 5–19 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    John, O.P., Donahue, E.M., Kentle, R.L.: The Big Five Inventory–Versions 4a and 54. University of California, Institute of Personality and Social Research, Berkeley, CA (1991)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schwartz, B., Ward, A., Monterosso, J., Lyubomirsky, S., White, K., Lehman, D.R.: Maximizing versus satisficing: Happiness is a matter of choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 83, 1178–1197 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schmitt, M., Dörfel, M.: Procedural injustice at work, justice sensitivity, job satisfaction and psychosomatic well-being. European Journal of Social Psychology 29, 443–453 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Borgelt, C., Kruse, R.: Speeding up fuzzy clustering with neural network techniques. In: The 12th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 2, pp. 852–856. IEEE Press, New York (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margeret Hall
    • 1
  • Simon Caton
    • 1
  • Christof Weinhardt
    • 1
  1. 1.Karlsruhe Service Research InstituteKarlsruhe Institute of TechnologyGermany

Personalised recommendations