A Privacy-Level Model of User-Centric Cyber-Physical Systems

  • Nikolaos E. Petroulakis
  • Ioannis G. Askoxylakis
  • Apostolos Traganitis
  • George Spanoudakis
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8030)


In an interconnected cyber-world, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) appear to play an increasingly important role in smart ecosystems. A variety of resource-constrained thin clients, such as sensors, RFIDs, actuators and smart devices, are included in the list of CPS. These devices can be used in a number of medical, vehicular, aviation, military and smart cities applications. A plethora of sensitive data is transmitted in insecure wireless or wired environments whilst adversaries are eager to eavesdrop, modify or destroy sensed data invading the privacy of user-centric CPSs. This work presents an overview and analysis of the most effective attacks, privacy challenges and mitigation techniques for preserving the privacy of users and their interconnected devices. In order to preserve privacy, a privacy-level model is proposed in which users have the capability of assigning different privacy levels based on the variety and severity of privacy challenges and devices’ capabilities. Finally, we evaluate the performance of specific CPSs at different privacy-levels in terms of time and consumed energy in an experimental test-bed that we have developed.


Privacy Privacy-level model Security Cyber-Physical Systems 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Edward, A.L.: Cyber Physical Systems: Design Challenges. In: 2008 11th IEEE International Symposium on Object and Component-Oriented Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC), pp. 363–369 (May 2008)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolf, W.: Cyber-physical systems. In: Embedded Computing, pp. 88–89 (2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Program Solicitation. Cyber-Physical Systems ( CPS ) Program Solicitation NSF 13-502 Replaces Document (S), pp. 1–13 (2013)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frederixand, F.: D Sector. Internet of Things policy of the European Commission Content IoT Policy IoT in Framework 7 R & D (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ma, H.D.: Internet of things: Objectives and scientific challenges. Journal of Computer Science and Technology 26, 919–924 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Winter, D.: Cyber Physical Systems - An Aerospace Industry Perspective. Boeing, 1–18 (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li, X., Yu, X., Wagh, A., Qiao, C.: Human factors-aware service scheduling in vehicular cyber-physical systems. In: 2011 Proceedings of the INFOCOM, pp. 2174–2182 (April 2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neuman, C.: Challenges in security for cyber-physical systems. In: ...Future Directions in Cyber-physical Systems Security (2009)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Petroulakis, N.E., Askoxylakis, I., Tryfonas, T.: Life-logging in Smart Environments: Challenges and Security Threats. In: The 2nd IEEE ICC Workshop on Convergence among Heterogeneous Wireless Systems in Future Internet (ConWire), Ottava, Canada (June 2012)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Petroulakis, N.E., Tragos, E.Z., Askoxylakis, I.G.: An Experimental Investigation on Energy Consumption for Secure Life-logging in Smart Environments. In: The 17th IEEE International Workshop on Computer-Aided Modeling Analysis and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Barcelona, Spain (September 2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Petroulakis, N.E., Tragos, E.Z., Fragkiadakis, A.G., Spanoudakis, G.: A lightweight framework for secure life-logging in smart environments. In: Elsevier Information Security Technical Report (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li, N., Zhang, N., Das, S.K., Thuraisingham, B.: Privacy preservation in wireless sensor networks: A state-of-the-art survey. Ad Hoc Networks 7(8), 1501–1514 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ozturk, C., Zhang, Y., Trappe, W.: Source-location privacy in energy-constrained sensor network routing. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Workshop on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, SASN 2004, p. 88 (2004)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gruteser, M., Schelle, G., Jain, A.: Privacy-aware location sensor networks. In: Proceedings of the 9th …(2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Luo, X., Ji, X., Park, M.-S.: Location Privacy against Traffic Analysis Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks. In: 2010 International Conference on Information Science and Applications, pp. 1–6 (2010)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kamat, P., Zhang, Y., Trappe, W., Ozturk, C.: Enhancing Source-Location Privacy in Sensor Network Routing. In: 25th IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, ICDCS 2005, pp. 599–608 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaikh, R.A., Jameel, H., D’Auriol, B.J., Lee, H., Lee, S., Song, Y.-J.: Achieving network level privacy in Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) 10(3), 1447–1472 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Veeranna, M., Krishna, V.R., Jamuna, D.: Enhancement of Privacy Level in Wireless Sensor Network. 1, 1024–1029 (2012)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Xing, K., Sundhar, S., Srinivasan, R., Rivera, M.: Attacks and Countermeasures in Sensor Networks: A Survey A wireless sensor network ( WSN ) is comprised of a large number of sensors that, pp. 1–28 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sen, J.: A Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Security. International Journal of Communication Networks and Information Security (IJCNIS) 1(2), 55–78 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu, Y.-C., Wang, H.J.: A framework for location privacy in wireless networks. In: ACM SIGCOMM Asia Workshop (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chan, H., Perrig, A.: Security in Networks. IEEE Computer 36(10), 103–105 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolaos E. Petroulakis
    • 1
  • Ioannis G. Askoxylakis
    • 1
  • Apostolos Traganitis
    • 1
  • George Spanoudakis
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computer ScienceFoundation for Research and Technology - HellasHeraklionGreece
  2. 2.School of InformaticsCity University LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations