Form in Potential Functions While Maintaining an Upright Posture during Exposure to Stereoscopic Video Clips

  • Yasuyuki Matsuura
  • Masaru Miyao
  • Hiroki Takada
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 8010)


Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known phenomenon in viewing video, playing video games and others. The VIMS is caused by sensory conflict, the disagreement between convergence and visual accommodation while observing stereoscopic images. The VIMS can be measured by psychological and physiological methods. We propose a mathematical methodology to measure the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) images on the equilibrium function. In this study, body sway in the resting state is compared with that during exposure to 3D video clips on a liquid crystal display and on a head mounted display. In addition, the Simulator Sickness Questioner (SSQ) was completed immediately afterward. Based on the statistical analysis of the SSQ sub-scores and each index for stabilograms, we succeeded in determining the quantity of the VIMS duing exposure to the stereoscopic images. Moreover, we discuss the metamorphism in the potential functions to control the standing posture during the exposure to stereoscopic video clips.


Visually induced motion sickness Stabilometry Sparse density Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) Head-mounted displays (HMDs) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Okawa, T., Tokita, T., Shibata, Y., Ogawa, T., Miyata, H.: Stabilometry - Significance of Locus Length Per Unit Area (L/A) in Patients with Equilibrium Disturbances. Equilibrium Res. 55(3), 283–293 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kaga, K., Memaino, K.: Structure of vertigo, Kanehara, Tokyo (1992)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Okawa, T., Tokita, T., Shibata, Y., Ogawa, T., Miyata, H.: Stabilometry-Significance of locus length per unit area (L/A). Equilibrium Res. 54(3), 296–306 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Collins, J.J., De Luca, C.J.: Open-loop and closed-loopcontrol of posture: A random-walk analysis of center of pressuretrajectories. Exp. Brain Res. 95, 308–318 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Emmerrik, R.E.A., Van Sprague, R.L., Newell, K.M.: Assessment of sway dynamics in tardive dyskinesia and developmentaldisability: sway profile orientation and stereotypy. Moving Disorders 8, 305–314 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Newell, K.M., Slobounov, S.M., Slobounova, E.S., Molenaar, P.C.: Stochastic processes in postural center-of-pressure profiles. Exp. Brain Res. 113, 158–164 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldie, P.A., Bach, T.M., Evans, O.M.: Force platform measures for evaluating postural control: reliability and validity. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabi. 70, 510–517 (1989)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Takada, H., Kitaoka, Y., Shimizu, Y.: Mathematical Index and Model in Stabilometry. Forma. 16(1), 17–46 (2001)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fujiwara, K., Toyama, H.: Analysis of dynamic balance and its training effect-Focusing on fall problem of elder persons. Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute 83, 123–134 (1993)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stoffregen, T.A., Hettinger, L.J., Haas, M.W., Roe, M.M., Smart, L.J.: Postural instability and motion sickness in a fixed-base flight simulator. Human Factors 42, 458–469 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Riccio, G.E., Stoffregen, T.A.: An Ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecological Physiology 3(3), 195–240 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Takada, H., Fujikake, K., Miyao, M., Matsuura, Y.: Indices to Detect Visually Induced Motion Sickness using Stabilometry. In: Proc. VIMS 2007, Hong Kong, pp. 178–183 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yasui, R., Matsuda, I., Kakeya, H.: Combining volumetric edge display and multiview display for expression of natural 3D images. In: Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems XIII, pp. 0Y1–0Y9. SPIE, San Jose (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kennedy, R.S., Lane, N.E., Berbaum, K.S., Lilienthal, M.G.: A simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ): A new method for quantifying simulator sickness. International J. Aviation Psychology 3, 203–220 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Takada, H., Morimoto, T., Tsunashima, H., Yamazaki, T., Hoshina, H., Miyao, M.: Applications of Double-Wayland algorithm to detect anomalous signals. Forma. 21(2), 159–167 (2006)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Suzuki, J., Matsunaga, T., Tokumatsu, K., Taguchi, K., Watanabe, Y.: Q&A and a manual in Stabilometry. Equilibrium Res. 55(1), 64–77 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Takada, H., Kitaoka, Y., Ichikawa, S., Miyao, M.: Physical Meaning on Geometrical Index for Stabilometly. Equilibrium Res. 62(3), 168–180 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matsumoto, T., Tokunaga, R., Miyano, T., Tokuda, I.: Chaos and Time Series. Baihukan, Tokyo (2002)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Takada, H., Shimizu, Y., Hoshina, H., Shiozawa, Y.: Wayland tests for differenced time series could evaluate degrees of visible determinism. Bulletin of Society for Science on Form 17(3), 301–310 (2005)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J.: Introduction to Biostatistics. W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco (1973)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miyao, M., Ishihara, S.Y., Saito, S., Kondo, T.A., Sakakibara, H., Toyoshima, H.: Visual accommodation and subject performance during a stereographic object task using liquid crystal shutters. Ergonomics 39, 1294–1309 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nishihara, T., Tahara, H.: Apparatus for recovering eyesight utilizing stereoscopic video and method for displaying stereoscopic video. US Patent 7404639 (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuyuki Matsuura
    • 1
  • Masaru Miyao
    • 3
  • Hiroki Takada
    • 2
  1. 1.Headquarters for Innovative Society-Academia CooperationUniversity of FukuiFukuiJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of EngineeringUniversity of FukuiFukuiJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Information ScienceNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations