Towards Providing Feedback to Students in Absence of Formalized Domain Models

  • Sebastian Gross
  • Bassam Mokbel
  • Barbara Hammer
  • Niels Pinkwart
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7926)


In this paper, we propose the provision of feedback in Intelligent Tutoring Systems in absence of a formalized domain model. In a Wizard of Oz experiment, a human tutor gave feedback to students based on sample solutions applying two strategies which aimed to encourage learners’ self-reflection. We discuss possibilities to automate the methods of feedback provision using domain-independent proximity measures.


intelligent tutoring systems feedback provision machine learning 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brusilovsky, P., Yudelson, M.: From webex to navex: Interactive access to annotated program examples. Proc. of the IEEE 96(6), 990–999 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chi, M.T.H., Bassok, M., Lewis, M.W., Reimann, P., Glaser, R.: Self-explanations: How students study and use examples in learning to solve problems. Cognitive Sci. 13(2), 145–182 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gross, S., Mokbel, B., Hammer, B., Pinkwart, N.: Feedback provision strategies in intelligent tutoring systems based on clustered solution spaces. In: DeLFI 2012: Die 10. e-Learning Fachtagung Informatik, pp. 27–38. Köllen (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mokbel, B., Gross, S., Lux, M., Pinkwart, N., Hammer, B.: How to quantitatively compare data dissimilarities for unsupervised machine learning? In: Mana, N., Schwenker, F., Trentin, E. (eds.) ANNPR 2012. LNCS, vol. 7477, pp. 1–13. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Neuhaus, M., Bunke, H.: Edit distance-based kernel functions for structural pattern classification. Pattern Recognition 39(10), 1852–1863 (2006)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nkambou, R., Fournier-Viger, P., Nguifo, E.M.: Learning task models in ill-defined domain using an hybrid knowledge discovery framework. Know.-Based Syst. 24(1), 176–185 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shute, V.J.: Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research 78(1), 153–189 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Topping, K.: Peer assessment between students in colleges and universities. Rev. of Educational Research 68(3), 249–276 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zakharov, K., Mitrovic, A., Ohlsson, S.: Feedback micro-engineering in eer-tutor. In: Proc. AIED 2005, pp. 718–725. Press (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Gross
    • 1
  • Bassam Mokbel
    • 2
  • Barbara Hammer
    • 2
  • Niels Pinkwart
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of InformaticsClausthal University of TechnologyClausthal-ZellerfeldGermany
  2. 2.CITEC Center of ExcellenceBielefeld UniversityBielefeldGermany

Personalised recommendations