Introduction to the Arctic

  • Erik J. Molenaar
  • Timo Koivurova
  • Elizabeth Tedsen
  • Andrew Reid
  • Kamrul Hossain


Climate change is occurring rapidly in the Arctic, bringing new economic opportunities alongside challenges for environmental governance in the region. Evaluating these changes, and options for effectively addressing them, requires an understanding of existing institutions and frameworks. This chapter provides a foundation for the book and an introduction to Arctic marine governance and transatlantic cooperation, setting the scene with sections on the spatial scope of the Arctic marine area, the law of the sea in the Arctic marine area, the Arctic Council, and the respective Arctic and marine policies of the European Union and the United States.


  1. ACIA (2005) Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. ACMA (1977) Alaska Coastal Management Act. AS 46.40Google Scholar
  3. AEPS (1991) Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, 14 Jan 1991, 30 I.L.M. 1624Google Scholar
  4. AMAP (1997) Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, OsloGoogle Scholar
  5. AMSA (2009) Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment 2009 Report. Arctic Council, Apr 2009Google Scholar
  6. Arctic SAR Agreement (2011) Agreement on Cooperation on Aeronautical and Maritime Search and Rescue in the Arctic, 12 May 2011, 50 I.L.M. 1119 (2011). Entered into force on 19 Jan 2013Google Scholar
  7. Arctic Shipping Guidelines (2002) Guidelines for Ships Operating in Arctic Ice-covered Waters, IMO MSC/Circ. 1056, MEPC/Circ. 399, 23 Dec 2002Google Scholar
  8. Bartenstein K (2011) The “Arctic Exception” in the Law of the Sea Convention: A Contribution to Safer Navigation in the Northwest Passage? Ocean Dev Int Law 42:22–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clean Water Act (1972) 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seqGoogle Scholar
  10. Coastal Zone Management Act (1972) 16 U.S.C. 1451 et seqGoogle Scholar
  11. Council of the European Union (2009) Council conclusions on Arctic issues, 2985th Foreign Affairs Council Meeting (8 Dec 2009)Google Scholar
  12. Council on Environmental Quality (2010) Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force. 19 July 2010Google Scholar
  13. Division for Ocean Affairs and Law of the Sea (2013) United Nations. <>. Accessed 31 Jan 2013
  14. EEA Agreement (1993) Agreement on the European Economic Area, 17 Mar 1993. Entered into force 1 Jan 1994Google Scholar
  15. European Commission (2007a) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions: an Integrated Maritime Policy for the European Union, 10 Oct 2007, COM (2007) 575 finalGoogle Scholar
  16. European Commission (2007b) Accompanying Document to the Integrated Maritime Policy, 10 Oct 2007, SEC (2007) 1278Google Scholar
  17. European Commission (2008) Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council: the European Union and the Arctic Region, 20 Nov 2008, COM (2008) 763Google Scholar
  18. European Commission and High Representative (2012) Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council. Developing a European Union Policy towards the Arctic Region: progress since 2008 and next steps, European Commission and High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, 26 June 2012, JOIN (2012) 19 finalGoogle Scholar
  19. European Parliament (2008) Arctic Governance. European Parliament resolution of 9 Oct 2008 on Arctic governance, P6_TA(2008)0474Google Scholar
  20. European Parliament (2011) A sustainable EU policy for the High North. European Parliament resolution of 20 Jan 2011 on a sustainable EU policy for the High North (2009/2214(INI)), 20 Jan 2011, P7_TA(2011)0024Google Scholar
  21. Exec. Order No. 13547 (2010) Stewardship of the Ocean, Our Coasts, and the Great Lakes. 10 July 2010, 75 Fed. Reg. 43,023Google Scholar
  22. Fish Stocks Agreement (1995) Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, 4 Aug 1995, 2167 U.N.T.S. 3. Entered into force 11 Dec 2001Google Scholar
  23. High Representative and European Commission (2008) Paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council. Climate Change and International Security, 14 Mar 2008, S113/08Google Scholar
  24. Humphreys A (2012) New proposal would see Hans Island split equally between Canada and Denmark. National Post, 11 Apr 2012. Available at: <>
  25. Ilulissat Declaration (2008) Arctic Ocean Conference. Ilulissat, Greenland. 27 May 2008, 48 I.L.M. 382 (2009)Google Scholar
  26. Koivurova T (2009) A note on the European Union’s integrated maritime policy. Ocean Dev Int Law 40:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Koivurova T, VanderZwaag DL (2007) The Arctic Council at 10 Years: Retrospect and Prospects. Univ British Columbia Law Rev 40:121–194Google Scholar
  28. Koivurova T, Kokko K, Duyck S, Sellheim N, Stepien A (2010) EU Competencies Affecting the Arctic: Directorate General for External Policies of the Union. Directorate B Policy Department StudyGoogle Scholar
  29. LOS Convention (1982) United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 10 Dec 1982, 1833 U.N.T.S. 396. Entered into force 16 Nov 1994Google Scholar
  30. Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (1972) 16 U.S.C. 1401 et seqGoogle Scholar
  31. Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008) Directive 2008/56/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 June 2009 establishing a framework for community action in the field of marine environmental policy, June 17 2009, 2008 O.J. (L 164)Google Scholar
  32. Molenaar EJ (2012) Fisheries Regulation in the Maritime Zones of Svalbard. Int J Mar Coast Law 27:3–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murmansk Treaty (2010) Treaty between the Kingdom of Norway and the Russian Federation concerning Maritime Delimitation and Cooperation in the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean, 15 Sept 2010, U.N.T.S. Reg. No. 49095. Entered into force 7 July 2011Google Scholar
  34. National Ocean Council (2012) Draft National Ocean Policy Implementation Plan, 12 Jan 2012. <>. Accessed 5 Feb 2013
  35. NSPD-66 (2009) National Security Presidential Directive and Homeland Security Presidential Directive. Arctic Region Policy, 9 Jan 2009, NSPD-66/HSPD-25Google Scholar
  36. Nuuk Declaration (2011) Nuuk Declaration on the occasion of the Seventh Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council. 12 May 2011Google Scholar
  37. Ottawa Declaration (1996) Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council, 19 Sept 1996, 35 I.L.M. 1382 (1996)Google Scholar
  38. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (1975) 43 U.S.C. 1331 et seqGoogle Scholar
  39. PAME (2009) Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines. Last updated 29 Apr 2009Google Scholar
  40. Part XI Deep-Sea Mining Agreement (1994) Agreement relating to the Implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 Dec 1982, 28 July 1994. 1836 U.N.T.S. 3. Entered into force 28 July 1996Google Scholar
  41. Polar Shipping Guidelines (2009) Guidelines for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, IMO Assembly Resolution A.1024(26), 2 Dec 2009Google Scholar
  42. Reagan PR (1983) President Ronald Reagan, ‘Statement on United States Ocean Policy’ 19 Weekly Comp Pres Doc 383. 10 Mar 1983Google Scholar
  43. Roach JA, Smith RW (1996) United States Responses to Excessive Maritime Claims, 2nd edn. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  44. Rovaniemi Declaration (1991) Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment, 14 June 1991, 30 I.L.M. 1624Google Scholar
  45. Spitsbergen Treaty (1920) Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, 9 Feb 1920, 2 L.N.T.S. 7. Entered into force 14 Aug 1925Google Scholar
  46. TFEU (2008) Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Consolidated Version. O.J. C 115/47Google Scholar
  47. Treaty on European Union (2010) Consolidated Version of the Treaty on European Union, 2010 O.J. C 83/01Google Scholar
  48. United States Department of State (1992) Limits in the Seas. No. 112. United States Responses to Excessive Maritime Claims. Available at <>. Accessed 5 Feb 2013

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erik J. Molenaar
    • 1
  • Timo Koivurova
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Tedsen
    • 3
  • Andrew Reid
    • 4
  • Kamrul Hossain
    • 2
  1. 1.Netherlands Institute for the Law of the Sea (NILOS)Utrecht University, and University of TromsøTromsøNorway
  2. 2.Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority LawArctic Centre, University of LaplandRovaniemiFinland
  3. 3.Ecologic InstituteWashington D.CUSA
  4. 4.Ecologic InstituteBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations