dReal: An SMT Solver for Nonlinear Theories over the Reals

  • Sicun Gao
  • Soonho Kong
  • Edmund M. Clarke
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7898)


We describe the open-source tool dReal, an SMT solver for nonlinear formulas over the reals. The tool can handle various nonlinear real functions such as polynomials, trigonometric functions, exponential functions, etc. dReal implements the framework of δ-complete decision procedures: It returns either unsat or δ -sat on input formulas, where δ is a numerical error bound specified by the user. dReal also produces certificates of correctness for both δ -sat (a solution) and unsat answers (a proof of unsatisfiability).


Model Check Proof Tree Bound Model Check Positive Rational Number Proof Check 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sicun Gao
    • 1
  • Soonho Kong
    • 1
  • Edmund M. Clarke
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

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