A Multilingual Semantic Wiki Based on Attempto Controlled English and Grammatical Framework

  • Kaarel Kaljurand
  • Tobias Kuhn
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7882)


We describe a semantic wiki system with an underlying controlled natural language grammar implemented in Grammatical Framework (GF). The grammar restricts the wiki content to a well-defined subset of Attempto Controlled English (ACE), and facilitates a precise bidirectional automatic translation between ACE and language fragments of a number of other natural languages, making the wiki content accessible multilingually. Additionally, our approach allows for automatic translation into the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which enables automatic reasoning over the wiki content. The developed wiki environment thus allows users to build, query and view OWL knowledge bases via a user-friendly multilingual natural language interface. As a further feature, the underlying multilingual grammar is integrated into the wiki and can be collaboratively edited to extend the vocabulary of the wiki or even customize its sentence structures. This work demonstrates the combination of the existing technologies of Attempto Controlled English and Grammatical Framework, and is implemented as an extension of the existing semantic wiki engine AceWiki.


semantic wiki multilinguality controlled natural language Attempto Controlled English Grammatical Framework 


  1. 1.
    Angelov, K.: The Mechanics of the Grammatical Framework. PhD thesis, Chalmers University of Technology (2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bao, J., Smart, P.R., Shadbolt, N., Braines, D., Jones, G.: A Controlled Natural Language Interface for Semantic Media Wiki. In: 3rd Annual Conference of the International Technology Alliance, ACITA 2009 (September 2009)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bringert, B., Angelov, K., Ranta, A.: Grammatical Framework Web Service. In: Proceedings of EACL 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bry, F., Schaffert, S., Vrandečić, D., Weiand, K.: Semantic wikis: Approaches, applications, and perspectives. Reasoning Web. Semantic Technologies for Advanced Query Answering, 329–369 (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Camilleri, J.J., Fuchs, N.E., Kaljurand, K.: Deliverable D11.1. ACE Grammar Library. Technical report, MOLTO project (June 2012),
  6. 6.
    Cimiano, P., Buitelaar, P., McCrae, J., Sintek, M.: Lexinfo: A declarative model for the lexicon-ontology interface. Web Semantics: Science, Services and Agents on the World Wide Web 9(1), 29–51 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davis, B., Enache, R., van Grondelle, J., Pretorius, L.: Multilingual Verbalisation of Modular Ontologies Using GF and lemon. In: Kuhn, T., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) CNL 2012. LNCS, vol. 7427, pp. 167–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fuchs, N.E.: First-Order Reasoning for Attempto Controlled English. In: Rosner, M., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) CNL 2010. LNCS, vol. 7175, pp. 73–94. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fuchs, N.E., Kaljurand, K., Kuhn, T.: Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation. In: Baroglio, C., Bonatti, P.A., Małuszyński, J., Marchiori, M., Polleres, A., Schaffert, S. (eds.) Reasoning Web 2005. LNCS, vol. 5224, pp. 104–124. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ghidini, C., Rospocher, M., Serafini, L.: Modeling in a Wiki with MoKi: Reference Architecture, Implementation, and Usages. International Journal on Advances in Life Sciences 4 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    W3C OWL Working Group. OWL 2 Web Ontology Language Document Overview (Second Edition). W3C Recommendation. Technical report, W3C (December 11, 2012),
  12. 12.
    Grūzītis, N.: Formal Grammar and Semantics of Controlled Latvian Language. PhD thesis, University of Latvia (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kaljurand, K.: Attempto Controlled English as a Semantic Web Language. PhD thesis, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Tartu (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaljurand, K.: ACE View — an ontology and rule editor based on Attempto Controlled English. In: 5th OWL Experiences and Directions Workshop (OWLED 2008), Karlsruhe, Germany, October 26-27, 12 pages (2008)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kamp, H., Reyle, U.: From Discourse to Logic. Introduction to Modeltheoretic Semantics of Natural Language, Formal Logic and Discourse Representation Theory. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (1993)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuhn, T.: AceWiki: A Natural and Expressive Semantic Wiki. In: Semantic Web User Interaction at CHI 2008: Exploring HCI Challenges (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kuhn, T.: How Controlled English can Improve Semantic Wikis. In: Lange, C., Schaffert, S., Skaf-Molli, H., Völkel, M. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Semantic Wikis, European Semantic Web Conference 2009. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 464. CEUR-WS (June 2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kuhn, T.: Controlled English for Knowledge Representation. PhD thesis, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Information Technology of the University of Zurich (2010)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuhn, T.: A principled approach to grammars for controlled natural languages and predictive editors. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 22(1), 33–70 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuhn, T.: The understandability of OWL statements in controlled English. Semantic Web 4(1), 101–115 (2013)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuhn, T., Höfler, S.: Coral: Corpus access in controlled language. Corpora 7(2), 187–206 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luts, M., Tikkerbär, D., Saarmann, M., Kutateladze, M.: Towards a Community-Driven Controlled Natural Languages Evolution. In: Rosner, M., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) Pre-Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Controlled Natural Languages, CNL 2010. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 622, CEUR-WS (2010)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meza-Moreno, M.S., Bringert, B.: Interactive Multilingual Web Applications with Grammatical Framework. In: Nordström, B., Ranta, A. (eds.) GoTAL 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5221, pp. 336–347. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pool, J.: Can Controlled Languages Scale to the Web? In: 5th International Workshop on Controlled Language Applications (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Power, R.: OWL Simplified English: A Finite-State Language for Ontology Editing. In: Kuhn, T., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) CNL 2012. LNCS, vol. 7427, pp. 44–60. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ranta, A.: The GF Resource Grammar Library. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology 2(2) (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ranta, A.: Grammatical Framework: Programming with Multilingual Grammars. CSLI Publications, Stanford (2011), ISBN-10: 1-57586-626-9 (Paper), 1-57586-627-7 (Cloth)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Angelov, K., Ranta, A.: Implementing Controlled Languages in GF. In: Fuchs, N.E. (ed.) CNL 2009. LNCS, vol. 5972, pp. 82–101. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ranta, A., Enache, R., Détrez, G.: Controlled Language for Everyday Use: The MOLTO Phrasebook. In: Rosner, M., Fuchs, N.E. (eds.) CNL 2010. LNCS, vol. 7175, pp. 115–136. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wyner, A., Angelov, K., Barzdins, G., Damljanovic, D., Davis, B., Fuchs, N., Hoefler, S., Jones, K., Kaljurand, K., Kuhn, T., Luts, M., Pool, J., Rosner, M., Schwitter, R., Sowa, J.: On controlled natural languages: Properties and prospects. In: Fuchs, N.E. (ed.) CNL 2009. LNCS, vol. 5972, pp. 281–289. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaarel Kaljurand
    • 1
  • Tobias Kuhn
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computational LinguisticsUniversity of ZurichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Chair of Sociology, in particular of Modeling and SimulationETH ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations