Fast Realistic Modelling of Muscle Fibres

  • Josef Kohout
  • Gordon J. Clapworthy
  • Saulo Martelli
  • Marco Viceconti
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 359)


In this paper, we describe a method for automatic construction of arbitrary number of muscle fibres in the volume of a muscle represented by its surface mesh. The method is based on an iterative, slice-by-slice, morphing of predefined fibres template into the muscle volume. Our experiments with muscles of thighs and pelvis show that in most cases, the method produces realistic fibres. For some muscles, especially, those with large attachment areas, some imperfections are observable; however, results are acceptable anyway. As our sequential VTK-based C++ implementation is capable of producing 128 fine fibres within a muscle of 10K triangles in 380 ms on commodity hardware (Intel i7), the method is suitable for interactive educational medical software. We believe that it could also be used in clinical biomechanical applications to extract information on the current muscle lever arm and fibre path.


Muscle modelling Muscle fibres VTK 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blemker, S.S., Delp, S.L.: Three-dimensional representation of complex muscle architectures and geometries. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 33(5), 661–673 (2005), CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gray, H.: Anatomy of the Human Body. Lea & Febiger (1918),
  3. 3.
    Hormann, K., Floater, M.S.: Mean value coordinates for arbitrary planar polygons. ACM Transactions on Graphics 25(4), 1424–1441 (2006), CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Joe, S., Kuo, F.Y.: Constructing sobol sequences with better two-dimensional projections. Society 30(5), 2635–2654 (2008), MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kohout, J., Clapworthy, G.J., Martelli, S., Wei, H., Viceconti, M., Agrawal, A.: Fast muscle wrapping. Computers & Graphics (2011) (submitted for publication)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ng-Thow-Hing, V.: Anatomically-based models for physical and geometric reconstruction of humans and other animals. Ph.D. thesis, University of Toronto, Canada (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pohlschmidt, M., Meadowcroft, R.: Muscle disease: the impact, Muscular Dystrophy Campaign (January 2010),
  8. 8.
    Richardson, M.: Muscle Atlas of the Extremities. Amazon Whispernet (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schroeder, W., Martin, K., Lorensen, B.: The Visualization Toolkit, 3rd edn. Kitware Inc. (2004),
  10. 10.
    Viceconti, M., Astolfi, L., Leardini, A., Imboden, S., Petrone, M., Quadrani, P., Taddei, F., Testi, D., Zannoni, C.: The multimod application framework. In: International Conference on Information Visualisation, pp. 15–20 (2004),
  11. 11.
    VPHOP: The osteoporotic virtual physiological human (2010),

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Josef Kohout
    • 1
  • Gordon J. Clapworthy
    • 2
  • Saulo Martelli
    • 3
  • Marco Viceconti
    • 3
  1. 1.University of West BohemiaPlzeňCzech Republic
  2. 2.University of BedfordshireLutonU.K.
  3. 3.Istituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations