Visual cryptography (VC) is a useful technique that combines the notions of perfect ciphers and secret sharing in cryptography. VC takes a binary image (the secret) and divides it into two or more pieces known as shares. When the shares are printed on transparencies and then superimposed, the secret can be recovered. No computer participation is required. There are various measures on which performance of visual cryptography scheme depends, such as pixel expansion, contrast, security, accuracy, computational complexity, share generated is meaningful or meaningless, type of secret images (either binary or color) and number of secret images(either single or multiple) encrypted by the scheme. In this paper, we will summarize the developments of visual cryptography since its birth in 1994, introduce the main research topics in this area where researchers have been contributing and outline the application of these schemes.


Visual cryptography scheme (VCS) pixel expansion contrast security accuracy computational complexity 


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Copyright information

© ICST Institute for Computer Science, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhiraj Pandey
    • 1
  • Anil Kumar
    • 2
  • Yudhvir Singh
    • 3
  1. 1.JSS NoidaIndia
  2. 2.CSE Deptt.Manipal UniversityJaipurIndia
  3. 3.University Instt.of Engg.&TechnologyMDU RohtakIndia

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