Swarmic Sketches and Attention Mechanism

  • Mohammad Majid al-Rifaie
  • John Mark Bishop
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7834)


This paper introduces a novel approach deploying the mechanism of ‘attention’ by adapting a swarm intelligence algorithm – Stochastic Diffusion Search – to selectively attend to detailed areas of a digital canvas. Once the attention of the swarm is drawn to a certain line within the canvas, the capability of another swarm intelligence algorithm – Particle Swarm Intelligence – is used to produce a ‘swarmic sketch’ of the attended line. The swarms move throughout the digital canvas in an attempt to satisfy their dynamic roles – attention to areas with more details – associated to them via their fitness function. Having associated the rendering process with the concepts of attention, the performance of the participating swarms creates a unique, non-identical sketch each time the ‘artist’ swarms embark on interpreting the input line drawings. The detailed investigation of the ‘creativity’ of such systems have been explored in our previous work; nonetheless, this papers provides a brief account of the ‘computational creativity’ of the work through two prerequisites of creativity within the swarm intelligence’s two infamous phases of exploration and exploitation; these phases are described herein through the attention and tracing mechanisms respectively.


Stochastic Diffusion Search Particle swarm optimisation sketching drawing attention 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Majid al-Rifaie
    • 1
  • John Mark Bishop
    • 2
  1. 1.Vividus Swarm LabVividus Solutions LTD.LondonUK
  2. 2.Goldsmiths, University of LondonLondonUK

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