In order to avoid the expense of interactive evolution, some researchers have begun using aesthetic measures as fitness functions. This paper explores the potential of one of the earliest aesthetic measures by George Birkhoff as a fitness function in vase design after suitable modifications. Initial testing of vases of this form also revealed several other properties with a positive correlation with human–awarded scores. A suitable balance of these new measures along with Birkhoff’s measure was found using feedback from volunteers, and vases evolved using the measure were also assessed for their aesthetic potential. Although the initial designs suffered from lack of diversity, some modifications led to a measure that enabled the evolution of a range of vases which were liked by many of the volunteers. The final range of vases included many shapes similar to those developed by human designers. Coupled with 3D printing techniques this measure allows automation of the whole process from conception to production. We hope that this demonstration of the theory will enable further work on other aesthetic products.


Break Point Correct Orientation Bezier Curve Interactive Evolution Polygonal Form 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kate Reed
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceImperial College LondonLondonUnited Kingdom

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