Abstract

This paper discusses issues in evolutionary art related to Art Theory and Aesthetics with a view to better understanding how they might contribute to both research and practice. Aesthetics is a term often used in evolutionary art, but is regularly used with conflicting or naïve understandings. A selective history of evolutionary art as art is provided, with an examination of some art theories from within the field. A brief review of aesthetics as studied in philosophy and art theory follows. It is proposed that evolutionary art needs to resolve some important conflicts and be clearer about what what it means by terms like “art” and “aesthetics”. Finally some possibilities for how to resolve these conflicts are described.

Keywords

Evolutionary Art Art Theory Aesthetics 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arnes, I.: Read_me, run_me, execute_me: Software and its discontents, or: It’s the performativity of code, stupid! In: Goriunova, O., Shulgin, A. (eds.) Read_me. Software Art and Cultures Conference, pp. 176–193. University of Århus, Aarhus (2004), http://art.runme.org/1107863582-4268-0/arns.pdf
  2. 2.
    van Assche, C., Moinot, M., Boissier, J.-L.: Images évolutives: Revue virtuelle 5. No. 5, Centre Georges Pompidou (1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ball, P.: Bright earth: the invention of colour. Viking, London (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baumgarten, A.G.: Reflections on Certain Matters Relating to Poetry. Ph.D. thesis (1735)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berlekamp, E.R., Conway, J.H., Guy, R.K.: Winning ways for your mathematical plays, vol. 2. Academic Press, New York (1982)MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Birkhoff, G.D.: Aesthetic Measure. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (1933)MATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brafield, P.: Brainstorm: software and habitus in digital design. Digitial Creativity 21(2), 112–126 (2010), doi:10.1080/14626268.2010.483688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Colton, S.: The painting fool: Stories from building an automated painter. In: McCormack, J., d’Inverno, M. (eds.) Computers and Creativity, ch.1, pp. 3–38. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dawkins, R.: The Blind Watchmaker. No. 332. Longman Scientific & Technical, Essex (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dennett, D.C.: Darwin’s dangerous idea: evolution and the meanings of life. Simon & Schuster, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Di Paolo, E., Noble, J., Bullock, S.: Simulation models as opaque thought experiments. In: Artifical Life VII (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dissanayake, E.: What is art for? University of Washington Press, Seattle (1988)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dissanayake, E.: Homo aestheticus: where art comes from and why. University of Washington Press, Seattle (1995)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ede, S.: The scientist’s mind: The artist’s temperament. In: Ede, S. (ed.) Strange and Charmed: Science and the Contemporary Visual Arts, ch.2, pp. 28–49. Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Foster, H.: The return of the real: the avant-garde at the end of the century. No. xix, 299. MIT Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Galanter, P.: The Problem with Evolutionary Art Is... In: Di Chio, C., Brabazon, A., Di Caro, G.A., Ebner, M., Farooq, M., Fink, A., Grahl, J., Greenfield, G., Machado, P., O’Neill, M., Tarantino, E., Urquhart, N. (eds.) EvoApplications 2010, Part II. LNCS, vol. 6025, pp. 321–330. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gell-Mann, M.: What is complexity? Complexity 1(1), 16–19 (1995)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gerbel, K., Weibel, P. (eds.): Genetic Art - Artificial Life. Ars Electronica, PVS Verleger, Wien, Austria (1993), http://90.146.8.18/en/archives/festival_archive/festival_catalogs/festival_catalog.asp?iProjectID=8745
  19. 19.
    Greenfield, G., Machado, P.: Simulating artist and critic dynamics - an agent-based application of an evolutionary art system. In: Correia, A.D., Rosa, A.C., Madani, K. (eds.) IJCCI, pp. 190–197. INSTICC Press (2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Humphrey, N.K.: The illusion of beauty. Perception 2, 429–439 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Johnson, C.G.: Fitness in Evolutionary Art and Music: What Has Been Used and What Could Be Used? In: Machado, P., Romero, J., Carballal, A. (eds.) EvoMUSART 2012. LNCS, vol. 7247, pp. 129–140. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kant, I.: The critique of judgement. No. 246, 180. Clarendon Press, Oxford (1952)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koren, L.: Which “Aesthetics” Do You Mean?: Ten Definitions. Imperfect Publishing (2010)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krokatsis, H., Walwin, J., Flint, J., Levin, J., O’Reilly, S.: You’ll Never Know - Drawing and Random Interference. Hayward Gallery, London (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lewis, M.: Evolutionary visual art and design. In: Romero, J., Machado, P. (eds.) The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music, pp. 3–37. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Martindale, C., Locher, P., Petrov, V.M. (eds.): Evolutionary and Neurocognitive Approaches to Aesthetics, Creativity and the Arts. Foundations and Frontiers in Aesthetics. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc. (2007)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    McCormack, J.: Open Problems in Evolutionary Music and Art. In: Rothlauf, F., Branke, J., Cagnoni, S., Corne, D.W., Drechsler, R., Jin, Y., Machado, P., Marchiori, E., Romero, J., Smith, G.D., Squillero, G. (eds.) EvoWorkshops 2005. LNCS, vol. 3449, pp. 428–436. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCormack, J.: Facing the future: Evolutionary possibilities for human-machine creativity. In: Machado, P., Romero, J. (eds.) The Art of Artificial Evolution: A Handbook on Evolutionary Art and Music, pp. 417–451. Springer (2008)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCormack, J., Bown, O., Dorin, A., McCabe, J., Monro, G., Whitelaw, M.: Ten questions concerning generative computer art. Leonardo to Appear (2012), http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/~jonmc/research/Papers/TenQuestionsLJ-Preprint.pdf (accepted July 2012)
  30. 30.
    McCormack, J., Dorin, A.: Art, emergence and the computational sublime. In: Dorin, A. (ed.) Second Iteration: Conference on Generative Systems in the Electronic Arts, pp. 67–81. CEMA, Melbourne (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nake, F.: Construction and intuition: Creativity in early computer art. In: McCormack, J., d’Inverno, M. (eds.) Computers and Creativity, pp. 61–94. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Hear, A.: Art and technology: An old tension. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 38, 143–158 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Oreskes, N., Shrader-Frechette, K., Belitz, K.: Verification, validation, and confirmation of numerical models in the earth sciences. Science 263, 641–646 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Parikka, J.: Leonardo book review: The art of artificial evolution: A handbook on evolutionary art and music, http://www.leonardo.info/reviews/nov2008/parikka_art.html
  35. 35.
    Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A.: Handbook of formal languages. Springer (1996)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Saunders, R., Gero, J.S.: Artificial creativity: A synthetic approach to the study of creative behaviour. In: Gero, J.S. (ed.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computational and Cognitive Models of Creative Design. pp. 113–139. Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, Sydney (2001), http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/~rob/study/publications/ccmcd01/SaundersGero2001CCMCD.htmland http://www.arch.usyd.edu.au/~rob/study/publications/ccmcd01/SaundersGero2001CCMCD.pdf
  37. 37.
    Schmidhuber, J.: A formal theory of creativity to model the creation of art. In: McCormack, J., d’Inverno, M. (eds.) Computers and Creativity, pp. 323–337. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Scruton, R.: Beauty. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2009)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Takagi, H.: Interactive evolutionary computation: Fusion of the capabilities of EC optimization and human evaluation. Proceedings of the IEEE 89, 1275–1296 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Todd, S., Latham, W.: Mutator: a subjective human interface for evolution of computer sculptures. Tech. rep. (1991)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Whitelaw, M.: Metacreation: art and artificial life. MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jon McCormack
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Electronic Media ArtMonash UniversityCaulfield EastAustralia

Personalised recommendations