Advertisement

The Societal Impact of Extraterrestrial Life: The Relevance of History and the Social Sciences

  • Steven J. Dick
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Astrobiology and Biogeophysics book series (ASTROBIO)

Abstract

This chapter reviews past studies on the societal impact of extraterrestrial life and offers four related ways in which history is relevant to the subject: the history of impact thus far, analogical reasoning, impact studies in other areas of science and technology, and studies on the nature of discovery and exploration. We focus particularly on the promise and peril of analogical arguments, since they are by necessity widespread in the field. This chapter also summarizes the relevance of the social sciences, particularly anthropology and sociology, and concludes by taking a closer look at the possible impact of the discovery of extraterrestrial life on theology and philosophy. In undertaking this study we emphasize three bedrock principles: (1) we cannot predict the future; (2) society is not monolithic, implying many impacts depending on religion, culture and worldview; (3) the impact of any discovery of extraterrestrial life is scenario-dependent.

Keywords

Human Genome Project Analogical Reasoning Objective Knowledge Societal Impact Microbial Life 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Achenbach, Joel. 1999. Captured by Aliens: The Search for Life and Truth in a Very Large Universe. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  2. Almar, Ivan. 1995. “The Consequences of a Discovery: Different Scenarios.” In Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life, ed. G.Seth Shostak, 499–505. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous. 1964. “Messages from Space.” America 111: 770.Google Scholar
  4. Arnould, Jacques. 2008. “Does Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life Threaten Religion and Philosophy?” Theology & Science 6: 439–450.Google Scholar
  5. Ascher, Robert, and Marcia Ascher. 1963. “Interstellar Communication and Human Evolution.” In Interstellar communication, ed. A. G. W. Cameron, 306–308. New York: W. A. Benjamin.Google Scholar
  6. Ashkenazi, Michael. 1992. “Not the Sons of Adam: Religious Responses to ETI.” Space Policy 8: 341–350.Google Scholar
  7. Bainbridge, William S. 2011. “Cultural Beliefs About Extraterrestrials: A Questionnaire Study.” In Civilizations Beyond Earth: Extraterrestrial Life and Society, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch, and Albert A. Harrison, 118–140. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  8. Barbour, Ian G. 1997. Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues. San Francisco: Harper.Google Scholar
  9. Bartha, Paul. 2010. By Parallel Reasoning: The Construction and Evaluation of Analogical Arguments. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  10. Basalla, George. 2006. Civilized Life in the Universe: Scientists on Intelligent Extraterrestrials. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  11. Battaglia, Debora. 2009. E.T. Culture: Anthropology in Outerspaces. Durham: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, Lewis W. 1985. “Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life.” In Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien Intelligence, ed. Edward Regis, Jr., 3–18. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press; Presidential address delivered before the Sixty-eighth Annual Eastern Meeting of the American Philosophical Association in New York City, December 28, 1971.Google Scholar
  13. Berenzden, Richard, et al. 1976. Man Discovers the Galaxies. New York: Science History Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Bertka, Constance M., ed. 2010. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life: Philosophical, Ethical and Theological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bertka, Constance M. 2013. “Christianity’s Response to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Intelligent Life: Insights from Science and Religion and the Sociology of Religion.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Biddanda, Bopaiah A., Stephen C. Nold, and Gregory J. Dick, et al. 2012. “Rock, Water, Microbes: Underwater Sinkholes in Lake Huron are Habitats for Ancient Microbial Life.” Nature Education Knowledge 3: 13. http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/rock-water-microbes-underwater-sinkholes-in-lake-25851285. Accessed 31 July 2012.
  17. Billingham, John. 2000a. “Summary of Results of the Seminar on the Cultural Impact of Extraterrestrial Contact.” In Bioastronomy ’99: A New Era in Bioastronomy, ed. Guillermo A. Lemarchand, and Karen J. Meech, 667–675. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  18. Billingham, John. 2000b. “Who Said What: A Summary and Eleven Conclusions.” In If SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 33–39. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  19. Billingham, John, Roger Heyns, David Milne, et al. 1999. Societal Implications of the Detection of an Extraterrestrial Civilization. Mountain View, CA: SETI Press.Google Scholar
  20. Blumberg, Baruch S. 2003. “The NASA Astrobiology Institute: Early History and Organization.” Astrobiology 3: 463–470.Google Scholar
  21. Blumenberg, Hans. 1987. The Genesis of Copernican World. Trans. R. M. Wallace. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  22. Bok, Bart. 1974. “Harlow Shapley and the Discovery of the Center of Our Galaxy.” In The Heritage of Copernicus: Theories Pleasing to the Mind, ed. Jerzy Neyman, 26–62. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  23. Bowler, Peter. 1989. Evolution: The History of an Idea. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  24. Caneva, Kenneth. 2005. “‘Discovery’ as a Site for the Collective Construction of Scientific Knowledge.” Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 35: 175–291.Google Scholar
  25. Cantril, Hadley. 1940. The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press. Reprint, 2005. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Capova, Klara A. 2013. “The Detection of Extraterrestrial Life: Are We Ready?” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  27. Capra, Fritjof. 1975. The Astrobiological Landscape: Philosophical Foundations of the Study of Cosmic Life. London: Wildwood House.Google Scholar
  28. Clarke, Arthur C. 1951. The Exploration of Space. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  29. Committee on Science and Astronautics, U. S. House of Representatives. 1961. Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs. Prepared for NASA by the Brookings Institute.Google Scholar
  30. Crowe, Michael J. 1986. The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750–1900: The Idea of a Plurality of Worlds from Kant to Lowell. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  31. Crowe, Michael J. 1997. “A History of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate.” Zygon 32: 147–162.Google Scholar
  32. Danielson, Dennis. 2001. “The Great Copernican cliché.” American Journal of Physics 69(10): 1029–1035.Google Scholar
  33. Danielson, Dennis. 2013. “Early Modern ET, Reflexive Telescopics, and Their Relevance Today.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Davies, Paul. C. W. 1995. Are We Alone?: Philosophical Implications of the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Delano, Kenneth. 1977. Many Worlds, One God. New York: Exposition Press.Google Scholar
  36. Denning, Kathryn. 2009. “Social Evolution: State of the Field.” In Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context, ed. Steven J. Dick, and Mark Lupisella, 63–124. Washington: NASA.Google Scholar
  37. Denning, Kathryn. 2011a. “Is Life What We Make of It?” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369(1936): 669–678.Google Scholar
  38. Denning, Kathryn. 2011b. “Being Technological.” In Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: SETI Past, Present, and Future, ed. H. Paul Shuch, 477–496. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  39. Denning, Kathryn. 2011c. “‘L’ on Earth.” In Civilizations Beyond Earth: Extraterrestrial Life and Society, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch, and Albert A. Harrison, 74–83. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  40. Denning, Kathryn. 2013. “Impossible Predictions of the Unprecedented: Analogy, History, and the Work of Prognostication.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Des Marais, David J., Joseph A. Nuth, III, and Louis J. Allamandola, et al. 2008. “The NASA Astrobiology Roadmap.” Astrobiology 8: 715–730.Google Scholar
  42. Dick, Steven J. 1982. Plurality of Worlds: The Origins of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate from Democritus to Kant. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  43. Dick, Steven J. 1995. “Consequences of Success in SETI: Lessons from the History of Science.” In Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life, ed. G. Seth Shostak, 521–532. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  44. Dick, Steven J. 1996. The Biological Universe: The Twentieth Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate and the Limits of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  45. Dick, Steven J. 1998. Life on Other Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  46. Dick, Steven J. 2000a. “Extraterrestrials and Objective Knowledge.” In If SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 47–48. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  47. Dick, Steven J. 2000b. “Cultural Aspects of Astrobiology: A Preliminary Reconnaissance at the Turn of the Millennium.” In Bioastronomy ’99: A New Era in Bioastronomy, ed. Guillermo A. Lemarchand, and Karen J. Meech, 649–659. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  48. Dick, Steven J. (ed.). 2000c. Many Worlds: The New Universe, Extraterrestrial Life and the Theological Implications. Philadelphia: Templeton Press.Google Scholar
  49. Dick, Steven J. 2013a. Discovery and Classification in Astronomy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  50. Dick, Steven J. 2013b. “The Twentieth Century History of the Extraterrestrial Life Debate: Major Themes and Lessons Learned.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  51. Dick, Steven J., and Launius, Roger. 2007. Societal Impact of Spaceflight. Washington: NASA History Division.Google Scholar
  52. Dick, Steven J., and Mark Lupisella, eds. 2009. Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context. Washington, DC: NASA. Also available online. http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4802.pdf. Accessed 29 July 2012.
  53. Dominik, Martin, and John C. Zarnecki. 2011. “The Detection of Extra-terrestrial Life and the Consequences for Science and Society.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369(1936): 499–507.Google Scholar
  54. Finney, Ben, and Eric M. Jones. 1985. Interstellar Migration and the Human Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  55. Finney, Ben. 1990. “The Impact of Contact.” Acta Astronautica 21(2): 117–121.Google Scholar
  56. Finney, Ben. 2000. “SETI, Consilience and the Unity of Knowledge.” In If SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 139–144. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  57. Finney, Ben, and Jerry Bentley. 1998. “A Tale of Two Analogues: Learning at a Distance from the Ancient Greeks and Maya and the Problem of Deciphering Extraterrestrial Radio Transmissions.” Acta Astronautica 42(10–12): 691–696.Google Scholar
  58. Gaddis, John Lewis. 2002. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  59. Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  60. Goodman, Matthew. 2008. The Sun and the Moon: The Remarkable True Account of Hoaxers, Showmen, Dueling Journalists, and Lunar Man-Bats in Nineteenth-Century New York. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  61. Grant, Edward. 1971. Physical Science in the Middle Ages. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Greene, John. 1981. Science, Ideology and World View. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  63. Guthke, Karl S. 1983. Der Mythos der Neuzeit. Das Thema der Mehrheit der Welten in der Literatur- und Geistesgechichte von der kopernikanischen Wende bis zur Science Fiction. Bern: Franck; English translation 1990. The Last Frontier: Imagining Other Worlds from the Copernican Revolution to Modern Science Fiction. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  64. Harrison, Albert A. 1997. After Contact: The Human Response to Extraterrestrial Life. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  65. Harrison, Albert A. 2007. Starstruck: Cosmic Visions in Science, Religion, and Folklore. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  66. Harrison, Albert A., John Billingham, and Steven J. Dick, et al. 2000. “The Role of Social Science in SETI.” IIf SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 71–85. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  67. Harrison, Albert A., and Steven J. Dick. 2000. “Contact: Long-term Implications for Humanity.” In If SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 7–31. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  68. Harrison, Albert A., and Kathleen Connell. 2001. Workshop on the Societal Implications of Astrobiology. Held at NASA Ames Research Center, November 16–17, 1999. Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center. Available online. http://astrobiology.arc.nasa.gov/workshops/societal/. Accessed 27 July 2012.
  69. Helmreich, Stefan. 2009. Alien Ocean: Anthropological Voyages in Microbial Seas. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  70. Hesse, Mary B. 1966. Models and Analogies in Science. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hofstadter, Douglas. 2001. “Epilogue: Analogy as the Core of Cognition.” In The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from Cognitive Science, ed. Dedre Gentner, Keith J. Holyoak, and Boicho N. Kokinov, 499–538. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  72. Hull, David. 1973. Darwin and His Critics: The Reception of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by the Scientific Community. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  73. Human Genome Project. 2012. http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/elsi.shtml. Accessed 29 July 2012.
  74. Jones, Morris. 2013. “Mainstream Media and Social Media Reactions to the Discovery of Extraterrestrial Life.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  75. Kilgore, Douglas D. 2003. Astrofuturism: Science, Race and Visions of Utopia in Space. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  76. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1957. The Copernican Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  77. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962a. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962b. “The Historical Structure of Scientific Discovery.” Science 136: 760–764. Reprinted in Kuhn, Thomas S. 1977. The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change, 165–177. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  79. Lamm, Norman. 1978. “The Religious Implication of Extraterrestrial Life.” In Challenge: Torah Views on Science and Its Problems, ed. Aryeh Cannell, and Cyril Domb, 354–398. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers.Google Scholar
  80. Lemarchand, Guillermo A., and Karen J. Meech eds. 2000. Bioastronomy ’99: A New Era in Bioastronomy. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  81. Lindberg, David. 1978. “The Transmission of Greek and Arabic Learning to the West.” In Science in the Middle Ages, ed. David Lindberg, 52–90. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Lindberg, David. 1992. The Beginnings of Western Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  83. Lowrie, Ian. 2013. “Cultural Resources and Cognitive Frames: Keys to an Anthropological Approach to Prediction.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  84. Lupisella, Mark. 2009. “Cosmocultural Evolution: The Coevolution of Culture and Cosmos and the Creation of Cosmic Value.” In Cosmos & Culture: Cultural Evolution in a Cosmic Context, ed. Steven J. Dick, and Mark Lupisella, 321–356. Washington: NASA.Google Scholar
  85. Maruyama, Magorah, and Arthur Harkins, eds. 1975. Cultures Beyond the Earth: The Role of Anthropology in Outer Space. New York: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  86. Mazlish, Bruce. 1965. The Railroad and the Space Program: An Exploration in Historical Analogy. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  87. Meech, Karen J., Jacqueline V. Keane, Michael Mumma, et al., eds. 2009. Bioastronomy 2007: Molecules, Microbes and Extraterrestrial Life. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  88. Michaud, Michael A. G. 2007. Contact with Alien Civilizations: Our Hopes and Fears about Encountering Extraterrestrials. New York: Copernicus.Google Scholar
  89. Minsky, Marvin. 1985. “Why Intelligent Aliens Will Be Intelligible.” In Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien Intelligence, ed. Edward Regis Jr, 117–128. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  90. Morrison, Philip. 1973. “The Consequences of Contact.” In Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI), ed. Carl Sagan, 333–349. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  91. Morrison, Philip. 1995. Nothing is Too Wonderful to be True. New York: American Institute of Physics.Google Scholar
  92. Morrison, Philip, John Billingham, and John Wolfe. 1977. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Washington, DC: NASA.Google Scholar
  93. Murphy, Cullen. 2007. Are We Rome?: The Fall of an Empire and the Fate of America.. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  94. Pass, James. 2004. “Inaugural Essay: The Definition and Relevance of Astrosociology in the Twenty-First Century,” and Part 2, “Relevance of Astrosociology As a New Subfield of Sociology.” http://www.astrosociology.org/Library/Iessay/iessay_p2.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2012.
  95. Pass, James. 2005. “The Sociology of SETI: An Astrosociological Perspective.” http://www.astrosociology.org/Library/PDF/submissions/Sociology%20of%20SETI.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2012.
  96. Pass, James. 2009. “Pioneers on the Astrosociological Frontier: Introduction to the First Symposium on Astrosociology.” In Space, Propulsion and Energy Sciences Forum—SPESIF-2009SPESIF-2009, ed. Glenn A. Robertson, 375–383. New York: American Institute of Physics. http://www.astrosociology.org/Library/PDF/Pass2009_Frontier_SPESIF2009.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2012.
  97. Pass, James. 2012. “An Astrosociological Perspective on the Societal Impact of Spaceflight.” In Historical Studies in the Societal Impact of Spaceflight, ed. Steven J. Dick. Washington: NASA.Google Scholar
  98. Peters, Ted. 1995. “Exo-Theology: Speculations on Extraterrestrial Life.” In The Gods Have Landed: New Religions from Other Worlds, ed. James R. Lewis, 187–206. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  99. Peters, Ted. 2009. “Astrotheology and the ETI Myth.” Theology and Science 7(1): 3–30.Google Scholar
  100. Peters, Ted. 2011. “The Implications of the Discovery of Extra-terrestrial Life for Religion.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 369(1936): 644–655.Google Scholar
  101. Peters, Ted. 2013. “Would the Discovery of ETI Provoke a Religious Crisis?” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  102. Pyle, Rod. 2012. Destination Mars: New Explorations of the Red Planet. New York: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  103. Race, Margaret S. 2007. “Societal and Ethical Concerns.” In Planets and Life: The Emerging Science of Astrobiology, ed. Woodruff T. Sullivan, III and John A. Baross, 483–497. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  104. Race, Margaret S., Kathryn Denning, and Constance Bertka, et al. 2012. “Astrobiology and Society: Building an Interdisciplinary Research Community.” Astrobiology, 12:958–965.Google Scholar
  105. Raible, Daniel C. 1960. “Rational Life in Outer Space?” America: National Catholic Weekly Review 103: 532–535.Google Scholar
  106. Randolph, Richard, Margaret Race, and Christopher McKay. 1997. “Reconsidering the Theological and Ethical Implications of Extraterrestrial Life.” Center for Theology and Natural Sciences Bulletin 17(3): 1–8.Google Scholar
  107. Rapport, Nigel, and Joanna Overing. 2000. Social and Cultural Anthropology: The Key Concepts. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  108. Regis, Edward, Jr., ed. 1985. Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien Intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Rescher, Nicholas. 1985. “Extraterrestrial Science.” In Extraterrestrials: Science and Alien Intelligence, ed. Edward Regis Jr, 83–116. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  110. Ross, Joseph T. 2013. “Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  111. Sagan, Carl, ed. 1973. Communication with Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CETI). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  112. Shostak, G. Seth, ed. 1995. Progress in the Search for Extraterrestrial Life. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  113. Shuch, H. Paul, ed. 2011. Searching for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: SETI Past, Present, and Future. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, Robert. 1982. The Expanding Universe: Astronomy’s “Great Debate.” Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  115. Stenger, Victor. 2011. The Fallacy of Fine Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Amherst: Prometheus.Google Scholar
  116. Stimson, Dorothy. 1972. The Gradual Acceptance of the Copernican Universe. Gloucester: Peter Smith.Google Scholar
  117. Sullivan, Woodruff T., III. 2013. “Extraterrestrial Life as the Great Analogy, Two Centuries Ago and in Modern Astrobiology.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  118. Sullivan, Woodruff T., III, and John A. Baross, eds. 2007. Planets and Life: The Emerging Science of Astrobiology. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  119. Swift, David. 1990. SETI Pioneers. Tempe: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  120. Tarter, Donald. 1996. “Alternative Models for Detecting Very Advanced Extraterrestrial Civilizations.” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 49: 291–295.Google Scholar
  121. Tarter, Donald. 1997. “Is Real-Time Communication Between Distant Civilizations in Space Possible?: A Call for Research.” Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 50: 249–252.Google Scholar
  122. Tatersall, Ian. 1995. The Last Neanderthal: The Rise, Success, and Mysterious Extinction of Our Closet Human Relatives. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  123. Tough, Allen (ed.). 2000. When SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High-Information Contact. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  124. Toynbee, Arnold. 1957. A Study of History. Abridgement by D. C. Sovervell, vol. 2. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  125. Vakoch, Douglas A. 1998. “Constructing Messages to Extraterrestrials: An Exosemiotic Perspective.” Acta Astronautica 42: 697–704.Google Scholar
  126. Vakoch, Douglas A. 1999. “The View from a Distant Star: Challenges of Interstellar Message-Making.” Mercury 28: 26–32.Google Scholar
  127. Vakoch, Douglas A. 2000. “Roman Catholic Views of Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Anticipating the Future by Examining the Past.” In If SETI Succeeds: The Impact of High Information Contact, ed. Allen Tough, 165–174. Bellevue: Foundation For the Future.Google Scholar
  128. Vakoch, Douglas A. 2009. “Anthropological Contributions to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.” In Bioastronomy 2007: Molecules, Microbes and Extraterrestrial Life, ed. Karen J. Meech, Jacqueline V. Keane, Michael Mumma, et al., 421–427. San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific.Google Scholar
  129. Vakoch, Douglas A., and Albert A. Harrison (eds.). 2011. Civilizations Beyond Earth: Extraterrestrial Life and Society. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  130. Vidal, Clement. 2007. “An Enduring Philosophical Agenda: Worldview Construction as a Philosophical Method.” http://cogprints.org/6048. Accessed 29 July 2012.
  131. Vidal, Clement. 2012. “Metaphilosophical Criteria for Worldview Comparison.” Metaphilosophy 43(3): 306–347.Google Scholar
  132. Vorzimmer, Peter. 1970. Charles Darwin, the Years of Controversy: The Origins of Species and its Critics, 1859–1882. Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  133. Wason, Paul K. 2011. “Encountering Alternative Intelligences: Cognitive Archaeology and SETI.” In Civilizations Beyond Earth: Extraterrestrial Life and Society, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch, and Albert A. Harrison, 42–59. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  134. Weigel, M. Margaret, and Kathryn Coe. 2013. “Impact of Extraterrestrial Life Discovery for Third World Societies: Anthropological and Public Health Considerations.” In Astrobiology, History, and Society: Life Beyond Earth and the Impact of Discovery, ed. Douglas A. Vakoch. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  135. Westman, Robert S. 1975. The Copernican Achievement. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  136. Westman, Robert S. 2011. The Copernican Question: Prognostication, Skepticism, and Celestial Order. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  137. White, Frank. 1990. The SETI Factor. New York: Walker and Co.Google Scholar
  138. Wilson, Edward O. 1998. Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Air and Space MuseumWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations