Monoamines and Decision-Making Under Risks
Past neuroeconomics studies using neurophysiology methods (mainly fMRI) have revealed the neural basis of “boundedly rational” or “irrational” decision-making that violates normative economics theory. It is expected that the field of neuroeconomics will be merged with neurotransmitter research and clinical neuroscience. Here, we provide an overview of recent molecular neuroimaging studies to understand how central monoamine transmission is related to “irrational” decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that central dopamine transmission might be related to distortion of subjective reward probability and noradrenaline and serotonin transmission might influence aversive emotional reaction to financial loss. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool to understand the neurochemical basis of decision-making in vivo in human. This approach seems to be a promising direction to understand the neurobiology of impaired decision-making in neuropsychiatric disorders and may help to develop novel pharmacotherapy for them.
KeywordsPositron Emission Tomography Pathological Gambling Prospect Theory Loss Aversion Amygdala Activation
A part of this study is the result of “Integrated Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders” carried out under the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (MEXT), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas: Prediction and Decision Making (23120009), a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientist A (23680045), a research grant from Takeda Science Foundation, a research grant from Brain Science Foundation, a research grant from Casio Science Foundation and a research grant from Senshin Medical Research Foundation.
- Camerer C, Loewenstein G (2004) Behavioral economics: past, present, future. In: Camerer C, Loewenstein G, Rabin M (eds) Advance in behavioral economics. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 3–51Google Scholar
- Ligneul R, Sescousse G, Barbalat G, Domenech P, Dreher J (2012) Shifted risk preferences in pathological gambling. Psychol Med (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
- Rasch B, Spalek K, Buholzer S, Luechinger R, Boesiger P, Papassotiropoulos A, de Quervain DJ (2009) A genetic variation of the noradrenergic system is related to differential amygdala activation during encoding of emotional memories. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:19191–19196CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Shioe K, Ichimiya T, Suhara T, Takano A, Sudo Y, Yasuno F, Hirano M, Shinohara M, Kagami M, Okubo Y, Nankai M, Kanba S (2003) No association between genotype of the promoter region of serotonin transporter gene and serotonin transporter binding in human brain measured by PET. Synapse 48:184–188CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sokol-Hessner P, Camerer CF, Phelps EA (2012) Emotion regulation reduces loss aversion and decreases amygdala responses to losses. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (Epub ahead of print)Google Scholar
- Takahashi H (2013) Molecular neuroimaging of emotional decision-making. Neurosci Res (in press)Google Scholar
- Takahashi H, Takano H, Camerer CF, Ideno T, Okubo S, Matsui H, Tamari Y, Takemura K, Arakawa R, Kodaka F, Yamada M, Eguchi Y, Murai T, Okubo Y, Kato M, Ito H, Suhara T (2012a) Honesty mediates the relationship between serotonin and reaction to unfairness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:4281–4284CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar