PerCAS: An Approach to Enabling Dynamic and Personalized Adaptation for Context-Aware Services

  • Jian Yu
  • Jun Han
  • Quan Z. Sheng
  • Steven O. Gunarso
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7636)


Context-aware services often need to adapt their behaviors according to physical situations and user preferences. However, most of the existing approaches to developing context-aware services can only do adaptation based on globally defined adaptation logic without considering the personalized context-aware adaptation needs of a specific user. In this paper, we propose a novel model-driven approach called PerCAS to developing and executing personalized context-aware services that are able to adapt to a specific user’s adaptation needs at runtime. To enable dynamic and personalized context-aware adaptation, user-specific adaptation logic is encoded as rules, which are then weaved into a base process with an aspect-oriented mechanism. At runtime, the active user-specific rule set will be switched depending on who is using/invoking the service. A model-driven platform has been implemented to support the development and maintenance of personalized context-aware services from specification, design, to deployment and execution. Initial in-lab performance experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of our approach.


Context-aware services web services personalized adaptation model-driven development aspect-oriented methodology business rules 


  1. 1.
    Anderson, C.: The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More. Hyperion Books (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arvidsson, F., Flycht-Eriksson, A.: Ontologies I (2008),
  3. 3.
    Baresi, L., Guinea, S.: Self-Supervising BPEL Processes. IEEE Transaction on Software Engineering 37(2), 247–263 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burdy, L., Cheon, Y., Cok, D.R., Ernst, M.D., Kiniry, J.R., Leavens, G.T., Leino, K.R.M., Poll, E.: An Overview of JML Tools and Applications. Int’l J. Software Tools for Technology Transfer 25(3), 40–51 (2005)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Charfi, A., Mezini, M.: Hybrid Web Service Composition: Business Processes Meet Business Rules. In: Proc. of the 2nd International Conference on Service Oriented Computing (ICSOC 2004), pp. 30–38 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charfi, A., Mezini, M.: AO4BPEL: An Aspect-oriented Extension to BPEL. World Wide Web 10, 309–344 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dey, A.K., Mankoff, J.: Designing Mediation for Context-aware Applications. ACM Trans. on Computer-Human Interaction 12(1), 53–80 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Elrad, T., Filman, R.E., Bader, A.: Aspect-Oriented Programming: Introduction. Commun. ACM 44(10), 29–32 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Evdemon, J., Arkin, A., Barreto, A., Curbera, B., Goland, F., Kartha, G., Khalaf, L., Marin, K., van der Rijn, M.T., Yiu, Y.: Web Services Business Process Execution Language Version 2.0. BPEL4WS Specifications (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ferscha, A.: 20 Years Past Weiser: What’s Next? IEEE Pervasive Computing 11, 52–61 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gradecki, J.D., Lesiecki, N.: Mastering AspectJ: Aspect-Oriented Programming in Java. Wiley (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grassi, V., Sindico, A.: Towards Model Driven Design of Service-Based Context-Aware Applications. In: Proc. of the International Workshop on Engineering of Software Services for Pervasive Environments: In Conjunction with the Sixth ESEC/FSE Joint Meeting, pp. 69–74 (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jaroucheh, Z., Liu, X., Smith, S.: Apto: A MDD-based Generic Framework for Context-Aware Deeply Adaptive Service-based Processes. In: Proc. of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Web Services (ICWS 2010), pp. 219–226 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Julien, C., Roman, G.C.: EgoSpaces: Facilitating Rapid Development of Context-Aware Mobile Applications. IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering 32(5), 281–298 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kambayashi, Y., Ledgard, H.F.: The Separation Principle: A Programming Paradigm. IEEE Software 21(2), 78–87 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kapitsaki, G.M., et al.: Context-Aware Service Engineering: A Survey. J. Syst. Software (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Malek, J., Laroussi, M., Derycke, A., Ben Ghezala, H.: Model-Driven Development of Context-aware Adaptive Learning Systems. In: Proc. of the 10th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2010), Washington, DC, USA, pp. 432–434 (2010)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Marconi, A., Pistore, M., Sirbu, A., Eberle, H., Leymann, F., Unger, T.: Enabling Adaptation of Pervasive Flows: Built-in Contextual Adaptation. In: Baresi, L., Chi, C.-H., Suzuki, J. (eds.) ICSOC-ServiceWave 2009. LNCS, vol. 5900, pp. 445–454. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mcguiness, D.L., van Harmelen, F.: OWL Web Ontology Language Overview. W3C Recommendation (February 2004),
  20. 20.
    Morin, B., Barais, O., Nain, G., Jezequel, J.M.: Taming Dynamically Adaptive Systems using Models and Aspects. In: Proc. of the 31st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2009), pp. 122–132 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Papazoglou, M.P., Traverso, P., Dustdar, S., Leymann, F.: Service-Oriented Computing: State of the Art and Research Challenges. Computer 40(11), 38–45 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Paschke, A., Teymourian, K.: Rule Based Business Process Execution with BPEL+. In: Proc. of I-KNOW 2009 and I’SEMANTICS 2009, pp. 588–601 (2009)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prezerakos, G.N., Tselikas, N., Cortese, G.: Model-Driven Composition of Context-Aware Web Services Using ContextUML and Aspects. In: Proc. of the IEEE International Conference on Web Services 2007 (ICWS 2007), pp. 320–329 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rosenberg, F., Dustdar, S.: Usiness Rules Integration in BPEL - a Service-Oriented Approach. In: Proc. of the 7th IEEE International Conference on E-Commerce Technology, pp. 476–479 (2005)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ross, R.G.: Principles of the Business Rules Approach. Addison-Wesley (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sheng, Q.Z., Pohlenz, S., Yu, J., Wong, H.S., Ngu, A.H.H., Maamar, Z.: ContextServ: A Platform for Rapid and Flexible Development of Context-Aware Web Services. In: Proc. of the 31st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2009), pp. 619–622 (2009)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sheng, Q.Z., Yu, J., Dustdar, S. (eds.): Enabling Context-Aware Web Services: Methods, Architectures, and Technologies. CRC Press (2010)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sindico, A., Grassi, V.: Model Driven Development of Context Aware Software Systems. In: Proc. of the International Workshop on Context-Oriented Programming (COP 2009), New York, NY, USA, pp. 7:1–7:5 (2009)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Truong, H.L., Dustdar, S.: A Survey on Context-Aware Web Service Systems. International Journal of Web Information Systems 5(1), 5–31 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang, J., Cheng, B.H.C.: Model-Based Development of Dynamically Adaptive Software. In: Proc. of the 28th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2006), pp. 371–380 (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jian Yu
    • 1
  • Jun Han
    • 1
  • Quan Z. Sheng
    • 2
  • Steven O. Gunarso
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Information and Communication TechnologiesSwinburne University of TechnologyMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceThe University of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations