Observed and Predicted Climate Change

  • Elzbieta Maria Bitner-GregersenEmail author
  • Lars Ingolf Eide
  • Torfinn Hørte
  • Rolf Skjong
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Climate Studies book series (BRIEFSCLIMATE)


The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established jointly by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 1988. The mandate was to assess scientific information related to climate change, to evaluate the environmental and socio-economic consequences of climate change, and to formulate realistic response strategies. The assessments provided by IPCC have since then played a major role in assisting governments to adopt and implement policies in response to climate change. In particular the IPCC has responded to the need for authoritative advice of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which was established in 1992, and its 1997 Kyoto Protocol. Since its establishment in 1988, the IPCC has produced a series of Assessment Reports (1990, 1995, 2001 and 2007). All Assessment Reports consist of three parts: The Science of Climate Change, Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses and Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. The last two also include a Synthesis report. In addition, IPCC Special Reports, Technical Papers and Methodology Reports have become standard works of reference, widely used by policymakers, scientists, other experts and students, e.g. the “Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation” (IPCC 2012, hereafter called SREX. A “Summary for Policy Makers” was issued by IPCC in 2011).


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Elzbieta Maria Bitner-Gregersen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Lars Ingolf Eide
    • 1
  • Torfinn Hørte
    • 1
  • Rolf Skjong
    • 1
  1. 1.Det Norske VeritasHøvikNorway

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