Bioremediation of PAH-Contaminated Soil by Fungi
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are by-products of the incomplete combustion of organic materials. They are considered to be priority pollutants in the environment due to their recalcitrance and mutagenic properties. The principal PAH loss process from soil is through microbial degradation; therefore, the bioremediation is considered as an efficient, financially affordable, and adaptable alternative for the recuperation of PAH-contaminated soil. Several microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi, are capable of degrading different types of PAHs. The ability of the fungi to degrade the high-molecular-weight PAHs, together with their physiological versatility, converts the fungal remediation in a promising technique for the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soil. This chapter summarizes the recent information on the metabolic pathway of the fungal transformation of PAHs and provides a critical review of previous work about fungal bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil. Also, some of the most recently used fungal technology to enhance PAHs bioremediation processes is discussed.
KeywordsLigninolytic Enzyme PAHs Degradation Ligninolytic Fungus Free Laccase Cunninghamella Elegans
Arambarri A. M. and Saparrat M. C. N. are research members of CONICET, and Morelli I.S. is research member of CIC-PBA. Coppotelli B. M. is postdoctoral fellow of CONICET. This review was partially supported by a grant from ANPCyT (PICT 884) and CONICET (PIP 1422) Argentina.
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