Agricultural Pesticide Use in Mountainous Areas of Thailand and Vietnam: Towards Reducing Exposure and Rationalizing Use

  • Marc Lamers
  • Pepijn Schreinemachers
  • Joachim Ingwersen
  • Walaya Sangchan
  • Christian Grovermann
  • Thomas Berger
Part of the Springer Environmental Science and Engineering book series (SPRINGERENVIRON)


A change in land use from the growing of upland rice to the cultivation of cash crops has increased the level of use of synthetic pesticides in the mountainous areas of Thailand and Vietnam. Although this increase has occurred generally across both countries, it has been especially prevalent in mountainous areas. The objective of this chapter is to describe the challenges faced when wishing to reduce the risks caused by the use of agricultural pesticides in mountainous areas, both from an economic and a biophysical point of view. Building on case studies from Thailand and Vietnam, we show how the potential risk of pesticide use is related to the limited experience farmers have in handling pesticides, and the hydrological relationships between highland and lowland areas.



Critical concentration


Median effect concentration


Environmental impact quotient


Median lethal concentration


No observed effect concentration


Predicted environmental concentration


Predicted no effect concentration


Risk quotient



We would like to thank Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), Vietnam for their funding of the Uplands Program (SFB 564), and also Georg Cadisch and Camille Saint-Macary for their helpful comments, Gary Morrison for reading through the English, and Peter Elstner for helping with the layout.

Open Access. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2013

Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Lamers
    • 1
  • Pepijn Schreinemachers
    • 2
  • Joachim Ingwersen
    • 1
  • Walaya Sangchan
    • 1
  • Christian Grovermann
    • 2
  • Thomas Berger
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biogeophysics (310d)University of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Department of Land Use Economics in the Tropics and Subtropics (490d)University of HohenheimStuttgartGermany

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