Advertisement

Virtual Reality Negotiation Training Increases Negotiation Knowledge and Skill

  • Joost Broekens
  • Maaike Harbers
  • Willem-Paul Brinkman
  • Catholijn M. Jonker
  • Karel Van den Bosch
  • John-Jules Meyer
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7502)

Abstract

In this paper we test the hypothesis that Virtual Reality (VR) negotiation training positively influences negotiation skill and knowledge. We discuss the design of the VR training. Then, we present the results of a between subject experiment (n=42) with three experimental conditions (control, training once, repeated training) investigating learning effects on subjects’ negotiation skill and knowledge. In our case negotiation skill consists of negotiation outcome (final bid utility) and conversation skill (exploratory conversational choices in VR scenario), and negotiation knowledge is the subjects’ quality of reflection upon filmed behavior of two negotiating actors. Our results confirm the hypothesis. We found significant effects of training on conversation skill and negotiation knowledge. We found a marginally significant effect of training on negotation outcome. As the effect of training on negotiation outcome was marginally significant and only present when controlling for overshadowing effects of the act of reflecting, we postulate that other learning approaches (e.g., instruction) are needed for trainees to use the information gained during the joint exploration phase of a negotiation for the construction of a bid. Our results are particularly important given the sparse availability of experimental studies that show learning effects of VR negotiation training, and gives additional support to those studies that do report possitive effects such as with the BiLAT system.

Keywords

Virtual Reality Distributive Issue Virtual Character Virtual Agent Negotiation Outcome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Andreatta, P.B., Maslowski, E., Petty, S., Shim, W., Marsh, M., Hall, T., Stern, S., Frankel, J.: Virtual reality triage training provides a viable solution for disaster-preparedness. Academic Emergency Medicine 17(8), 870–876 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brinkman, W., Hartanton, D., Kang, N., de Vliegher, D., Kampmann, I., Morina, N., Emmelkamp, P.M.G., Neerincx, M.: A Virtual Reality Dialogue System for the Treatment of Social Phobia (page in press, 2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broekens, J., Harbers, M., Hindriks, K., van den Bosch, K., Jonker, C., Meyer, J.-J.: Do You Get It? User-Evaluated Explainable BDI Agents. In: Dix, J., Witteveen, C. (eds.) MATES 2010. LNCS, vol. 6251, pp. 28–39. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Broekens, J., Jonker, C., Meyer, J.-J.: Affective negotiation support systems. Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments 2, 121–144 (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broekens, J., Qu, C., Brinkman, W.-P.: Factors influencing user perception of affective facial expressions in virtual characters (submitted)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Core, M., Traum, T., Lane, H., Swartout, W., Gratch, J., Van Lent, M.: Teaching negotiation skills through practice and reflection with virtual humans. Simulation 82(11), 685–701 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Durlach, P.: Cultural awareness and negotiation skills training: Evaluation of a prototype semi-immersive system. Technical report, DTIC Document (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emmelkamp, P., Bruynzeel, M., Drost, L., van der Mast, C.: Virtual reality treatment in acrophobia: a comparison with exposure in vivo. CyberPsychology and Behavior 4(3), 335–339 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fisher, R., Shapiro, D.: Beyond reason: using emotions as you negotiate. Random House Business Books (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fisher, R., Ury, W., Patton, B.: Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (1991)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gomboc, D., Solomon, S., Core, M.G., Lane, H.C., van Lent, M.: Design recommendations to support automated explanation and tutoring. In: Proc. of BRIMS 2005, Universal City, CA (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grantcharov, T.P., Kristiansen, V.B., Bendix, J., Bardram, L., Rosenberg, J., Funch-Jensen, P.: Randomized clinical trial of virtual reality simulation for laparoscopic skills training. British Journal of Surgery 91(2), 146–150 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harbers, M., Broekens, J., van den Bosch, K., Meyer, J.-J.: Guidelines for developing explainable cognitive models. In: Proceedings of ICCM 2010, pp. 85–90 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hays, M.J., Ogan, A., Lane, H.C.: The Evolution of Assessment: Learning about Culture from a Serious Game, pp. 37–44 (2010)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hindriks, K., Jonker, C.: Creating human-machine synergy in negotiation support systems: Towards the pocket negotiator. In: Brinkman, W.-P. (ed.) Proc. of the 1st Int. Working Conference on Human Factors and Computational Models in Negotiation, HuCom 2008, Delft, pp. 47–54 (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Johnson, L.: Agents that learn to explain themselves. In: Proceedings of the Conference on AI, pp. 1257–1263 (1994)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keil, F.: Explanation and understanding. Annual Reviews Psychology 57, 227–254 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kim, J.M., Hill, J.R.W., Durlach, P.J., Lane, H.C., Forbell, E., Core, M., Marsella, S., Pynadath, D., Hart, J.: Bilat: A game-based environment for practicing negotiation in a cultural context. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education 19(3), 289–308 (2009)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krijn, M., Emmelkamp, P.M.G., Olafsson, R.P., Biemond, R.: Virtual reality exposure therapy of anxiety disorders: A review. Clinical Psychology Review 24(3), 259–281 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chad Lane, H., Hays, M.J., Auerbach, D., Core, M.G.: Investigating the Relationship between Presence and Learning in a Serious Game. In: Aleven, V., Kay, J., Mostow, J. (eds.) ITS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6094, pp. 274–284. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Malle, B.: How people explain behavior: A new theoretical framework. Personality and Social Psychology Review 3(1), 23–48 (1999)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mantovani, F.: Vr learning: Potential and challenges for the use of 3d environments in education and training. In: Riva, G., Galimberti, C. (eds.) Towards Cyberpsychology: Mind, Cognition, and Society in the Internet Age, pp. 207–225 (2001)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nadler, J., Thompson, L., Boven, L.V.: Learning negotiation skills: Four models of knowledge creation and transfer. Management Science 49(4), 529–540 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ortony, A., Clore, G.L., Collins, A.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge University Press (1988)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parsons, S., Mitchell, P.: The potential of virtual reality in social skills training for people with autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 46(5), 430–443 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Powers, M.B., Emmelkamp, P.M.G.: Virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 22(3), 561–569 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Raiffa, H.: The Art and Science of Negotiation. Harvard University Press (1982)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Reznek, M., Harter, P., Krummel, T.: Virtual reality and simulation: Training the future emergency physician. Academic Emergency Medicine 9(1), 78–87 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rizzo, A.S., Kim, G.J.: A swot analysis of the field of virtual reality rehabilitation and therapy. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 14(2), 119–146 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    van den Spek, E.: Experiments in Serious Game Design. SIKS Dissertation series. University of Utrecht, Utrecht (2011)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thompson, L.L.: The Heart and Mind of the Negotiator. Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thomson, J., Tolmie, A., Foot, H., Whelan, K., Sarvary, P., Morrison, S.: Influence of virtual reality training on the roadside crossing judgments of child pedestrians. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 11(3), 175 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Van Lent, M., Fisher, W., Mancuso, M.: An explainable artificial intelligence system for small-unit tactical behavior. In: Proc. of IAAA 2004. AAAI Press, Menlo Park (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joost Broekens
    • 1
  • Maaike Harbers
    • 1
  • Willem-Paul Brinkman
    • 1
  • Catholijn M. Jonker
    • 1
  • Karel Van den Bosch
    • 3
  • John-Jules Meyer
    • 2
  1. 1.Delft University of TechnologyThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Utrecht UniversityThe Netherlands
  3. 3.TNO Human FactorsSoesterbergThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations