Spatial Misregistration of Virtual Human Audio: Implications of the Precedence Effect
- 2.1k Downloads
Virtual humans are often presented as mixed reality characters projected onto screens that are blended into a physical setting. Stereo loudspeakers to the left and right of the screen are typically used for virtual human audio. Unfortunately, stereo loudspeakers can produce an effect known as precedence, which causes users standing close to a particular loudspeaker to perceive a collapse of the stereo sound to that singular loudspeaker. We studied if this effect might degrade the presentation of a virtual character, or if this would be prevented by the ventriloquism effect. Our results demonstrate that from viewing distances common to virtual human scenarios, a movement equivalent to a single stride can induce a stereo collapse, creating conflicting perceived locations of the virtual human’s voice. Users also expressed a preference for a sound source collocated with the virtual human’s mouth rather than a stereo pair. These results provide several design implications for virtual human display systems.
Keywordsvirtual human audio spatial sound stereo audio precedence effect ventriloquism effect mixed reality
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Baldis, J.J.: Effects of spatial audio on memory, comprehension, and preference during desktop conferences. In: ACM CHI, pp. 166–173 (2001)Google Scholar
- 3.Berkhout, A.J.: A holographic approach to acoustic control. J. Audio Eng. Soc. 36(12), 977–995 (1988)Google Scholar
- 5.Bertelson, P.: Chapter 14 ventriloquism: A case of crossmodal perceptual grouping. In: Gisa Aschersleben, T.B., Msseler, J. (eds.) Cognitive Contributions to the Perception of Spatial and Temporal Events, Advances in Psychology, vol. 129, pp. 347–362. North-Holland (1999)Google Scholar
- 6.Blauert, J.: Räumliches Hören (Spatial Hearing). S. Hirzel-Verlag, Stuttgart (1974)Google Scholar
- 8.Courgeon, M., Rebillat, M., Katz, B., Clavel, C., Martin, J.C.: Life-sized audiovisual spatial social scenes with multiple characters: MARC & SMART-I2. In: Meeting of the French Association for Virtual Reality (2010)Google Scholar
- 10.Fellget, P.: Ambisonics. part one: General system description. Studio Sound 17, 20–22, 40 (August 1975)Google Scholar
- 12.Ihlefeld, A., Sarwar, S.J., Shinn-Cunningham, B.G.: Spatial uncertainty reduces the benefit of spatial separation in selective and divided listening. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 119(5), 3417–3417 (2006)Google Scholar
- 14.Li, Z., Duraiswami, R., Davis, L.: Recording and reproducing high order surround auditory scenes for mixed and augmented reality. In: IEEE and ACM ISMAR, pp. 240–249 (November 2004)Google Scholar
- 16.Sodnik, J., Tomazic, S., Grasset, R., Duenser, A., Billinghurst, M.: Spatial sound localization in an augmented reality environment. In: OZCHI, pp. 111–118 (2006)Google Scholar
- 17.Sundareswaran, V., Wang, K., Chen, S., Behringer, R., McGee, J., Tam, C., Zahorik, P.: 3D audio augmented reality: implementation and experiments. In: IEEE and ACM ISMAR, pp. 296–297 (October 2003)Google Scholar