An iPad App for Recording Movement Paths and Associated Spatial Behaviors

  • Nick Sheep Dalton
  • Ruth Conroy Dalton
  • Christoph Hölscher
  • Gregory Kuhnmünch
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7463)

Abstract

This paper describes an iPad App, known as ‘PeopleWatcher’ created for the real-time recording of wayfinding behaviors in buildings/outdoor environments. Initially the paper reviews other spatial-temporal behavioral recording programs and compares their features to the PeopleWatcher App, which is introduced in the next section. The third section presents a pilot study in which the App was tested and discusses the resultant user feedback. It concludes that the iPad is a particularly useful device for behavioral observations in the field, but that further development, the inclusion of post-experiment data-analyses, could be beneficial for future versions of the App.

Keywords

iPad App Wayfinding and navigation Wayfinding task Direct observation Building usability 

References

  1. 1.
    Baber, J.: Tools and techniques: The Observer. Applied Ergonomics 25, 398–399Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Benedek, J., Miner, T.: Measuring Desirability: New methods for evaluating desirability in a usability lab setting. In: Proceedings of Usability Professionals Association, pp. 8–12 (2002)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benne, M.R.: Methods for assessing influences of the visual-spatial environment on museum display attraction (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boccia, M.L.: Practical Computing. Practicing Anthropology 17, 59–61Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carlson, L.A., et al.: Conducting wayfinding experiments within buildings: The Seattle Public Library (in preparation)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carlson, M.L., Shelton, A.: Wayfinding in the Seattle Public Library: What Can We Learn About Navigational Styles? In: Proceedings of the Psychonomics Society, Seattle, WA, pp. 49–51Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dalton, R.C., Hölscher, C.: Navigating the Seattle Public Library: Usability, Cognition and Building Analysis. In: 8th International Space Syntax Symposium, Santiago de Chile (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davis, A.: The Observer: An integrated software package for behavioural research. Journal of Animal Ecology 62, 218–219 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eckhardt, G., Waterman, J.: Pocket Observer 2.0:: By Noldus Information Technology. Animal Behaviour 67(4), 805–806 (2004), http://www.noldus.com CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ericsson, K., Simon, H.A.: Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review 87(3), 215 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farbstein, J., Wener, R.: A comparison of “direct” and “indirect” supervision correctional facilities. National Institute of Corrections, Washington, DC (1989)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Farrell, A.D.: Computers and behavioral assessment: Current applications, future possibilities, and obstacles to routine use. Behavioral Assessment (1991)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grajewski, T., Vaughan, L.: Space Syntax Observation Manual. UCL Bartlett and Space Syntax Limited, London (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hegarty, M., et al.: The Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hile, M.: Hand-held behavioral observations: The Observer. Behavioral Assessment 13, 187–196 (1991)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ittelson, W.H., et al.: The use of behavioral maps in environmental psychology. In: Environmental Psychology: Man and his Physical Setting, pp. 658–668 (1970)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kahng, S., Iwata, B.A.: Computer systems for collecting real-time observational data. In: Behavioral Observation: Technology & Applications in Developmental Disabilities, pp. 35–45 (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kahng, S.W., Iwata, B.: Computerized systems for collecting real-time observational data. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 31(2), 253 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kantrowitz, M., Farbstein, J.: POE delivers for the post office. In: Building Evaluation Techniques. McGraw-Hill, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuhnmünch, G., et al.: WayTracer-A mobile assistant for logging navigation behaviour. In: Spatial Cognition 2006: Poster Presentations, vol. 17 (2006)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuhnmünch, G., Strube, G.: Waytracer: a mobile assistance for real-time logging of events and related positions. Computers in Human Behaviour 25(5), 1156–1164 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
    Lynch, K.: The image of the city. MIT Press, Cambridge (1960,1971)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Noldus, L.P.J.J.: The Observer: a software system for collection and analysis of observational data. Behavior Research Methods 23(3), 415–429 (1991)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Noldus, L.P.J.J., et al.: The Observer Video-Pro: new software for the collection, management, and presentation of time-structured data from videotapes and digital media files. Behavior Research methods 32(1), 197–206 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pinzon, I.: (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Setlur, V., et al.: Towards designing better map interfaces for the mobile: experiences from example. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference and Exhibition on Computing for Geospatial Research & Application, p. 31 (2010)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shepard, R.N., Metzler, J.: Mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. Science 171, 3972, 701 (1971)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sidener, T.M., et al.: A review of the Behavioral Evaluation Strategy and Taxonomy (BEST®) software application. Behavioral Interventions 19(4), 275–285 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wener, R.: BMAP 3.0: Handheld Software to Support Behavior Observations. In: 33rd Annual Conference of The Environmental Design Research Association, Philadelphia, PA (2002)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wener, R.: (2012)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wener, R.: (2011) Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nick Sheep Dalton
    • 1
  • Ruth Conroy Dalton
    • 2
  • Christoph Hölscher
    • 3
  • Gregory Kuhnmünch
    • 3
  1. 1.The Open UniversityMilton KeynesUK
  2. 2.Northumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations