Towards an Efficient Flash-Based Mid-Tier Cache

  • Yi Ou
  • Jianliang Xu
  • Theo Härder
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7446)

Abstract

Due to high access performance and price-per-byte considerations, flash memory has been recommended for use as a mid-tier cache in a multi-tier storage system. However, previous studies related to flash-based mid-tier caching only considered the indirect use of flash memory via a flash translation layer, which causes expensive flash-based cache maintenance. This paper identifies the weaknesses of such indirect methods, with a focus on the cold-page migration problem. As improvements, we propose two novel approaches, an indirect approach called LPD (logical page drop) and a native approach called NFA (native flash access). The basic idea is to drop cold pages proactively so that the garbage collection overhead can be minimized. Our experiments demonstrate that both approaches, especially the native one, effectively improve the use of flash memory in the mid-tier cache. NFA reduces the number of garbage collections and block erasures by up to a factor of five and improves the mid-tier throughput by up to 66%.

Keywords

Garbage Collection Cache Replacement Cache Manager Flash Translation Layer Free Block 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gal, E., Toledo, S.: Algorithms and data structures for flash memories. ACM Computing Surveys 37(2), 138–163 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ban, A.: Flash file system, US Patent 5,404,485 (April 1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Birrell, A., Isard, M., Thacker, C., Wobber, T.: A design for high-performance flash disks. SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 41(2), 88–93 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ban, A.: Flash file system optimized for page-mode flash technologies. US Patent 5,937,425 (October 1999)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Estakhri, P., Iman, B.: Moving sequential sectors within a block of information in a flash memory mass storage architecture. US Patent 5,930,815 (July 1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim, J., Kim, J.M., et al.: A space-efficient flash translation layer for CompactFlash systems. IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics 48(2), 366–375 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lee, S.W., Park, D.J., et al.: A log buffer-based flash translation layer using fully-associative sector translation. ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 6(3) (July 2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gupta, A., Kim, Y., Urgaonkar, B.: DFTL: a flash translation layer employing demand-based selective caching of page-level address mappings. In: Proc. of ASPLOS 2009, pp. 229–240. ACM, New York (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, J.K., Lee, H.G., et al.: A PRAM and NAND flash hybrid architecture for high-performance embedded storage subsystems. In: Proc. of EMSOFT 2008, pp. 31–40. ACM, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chung, T., Park, D., Park, S., Lee, D., Lee, S., Song, H.: A survey of flash translation layer. Journal of Systems Architecture 55(5), 332–343 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chang, L.P., Kuo, T.W., Lo, S.W.: Real-time garbage collection for flash-memory storage systems of real-time embedded systems. ACM Trans. Embed. Comput. Syst. 3(4), 837–863 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    INCITS T13: Data Set Management commands proposal for ATA8-ACS2 (revision 6) (2007), http://t13.org/Documents/UploadedDocuments/docs2008/e07154r6-Data_Set_Management_Proposal_for_ATA-ACS2.doc
  13. 13.
    Zhou, Y., Chen, Z., et al.: Second-level buffer cache management. IEEE Trans. on Parallel and Distributed Systems 15(6), 505–519 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen, Z., Zhang, Y., et al.: Empirical evaluation of multi-level buffer cache collaboration for storage systems. In: Proc. of SIGMETRICS 2005, pp. 145–156. ACM (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jiang, S., Davis, K., et al.: Coordinated multilevel buffer cache management with consistent access locality quantification. IEEE Trans. on Computers, 95–108 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gill, B.: On multi-level exclusive caching: offline optimality and why promotions are better than demotions. In: Proc. of FAST 2008, pp. 1–17. USENIX Association (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Koltsidas, I., Viglas, S.D.: The case for flash-aware multi-level caching. Technical report, University of Edinburgh (2009)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ou, Y., Härder, T.: Trading Memory for Performance and Energy. In: Xu, J., Yu, G., Zhou, S., Unland, R. (eds.) DASFAA Workshops 2011. LNCS, vol. 6637, pp. 241–253. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Canim, M., Mihaila, G., et al.: SSD bufferpool extensions for database systems. In: Proc. of VLDB 2010, pp. 1435–1446 (2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Do, J., DeWitt, D., Zhang, D., Naughton, J., et al.: Turbocharging DBMS buffer pool using SSDs. In: Proc. of SIGMOD 2011, pp. 1113–1124. ACM (2011)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rosenblum, M., Ousterhout, J.K.: The design and implementation of a log-structured file system. ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 10, 26–52 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kawaguchi, A., Nishioka, S., Motoda, H.: A flash-memory based file system. In: Proc. of TCON 1995. USENIX Association, Berkeley (1995)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    On, S.T., Xu, J., et al.: Flag Commit: Supporting efficient transaction recovery on flash-based DBMSs. IEEE Trans. on Knowledge and Data Engineering 99 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Prabhakaran, V., Rodeheffer, T.L., Zhou, L.: Transactional flash. In: Proc. of OSDI 2008, pp. 147–160. USENIX Association, Berkeley (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Western Digital Corp.: Specifications for the 150 GB SATA 3.0 Gb/s VelociRaptor drive, model WD1500HLFS (2011), http://wdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/search/1/a_id/2716

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yi Ou
    • 1
  • Jianliang Xu
    • 2
  • Theo Härder
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KaiserslauternGermany
  2. 2.Hong Kong Baptist UniversityHong Kong

Personalised recommendations